Indonesia at a Glance
INDONESIA, the largest archipelago in the world to form a single state, consists of five main islands and some 30 smaller archipelagoes, totaling about 18,110 islands and islets of which about 6,000 are inhabited.
The name "INDONESIA" is composed of the two Greek words: "Indos" meaning India and "Nesos" meaning islands. The Indonesian archipelago forms a crossroad between two oceans, the Pacific and Indian oceans and a bridge between two continents, Asia and Australia. Because of its strategic position, therefore, Indonesia's cultural, social, political and economic patterns have always been conditioned by its geographical position.
The territory of the Republic of Indonesia stretches from 6°8' north latitude to 11°15' south latitude and from 94°45' to 141°65' east longitude. Its estimated total area is 9.8 million sq km (including Exclusive Economic Zone -EEZ), which consists of a land territory of 1.9 million sq km and a sea territory of 7.9 million sq km.
Indonesia's five main islands are: Sumatra is about 473,606 sq km in size, Java -the most fertile and densely populated island- 132, 187 sq km, Kalimantan or two-thirds of the island of Borneo measuring 539,460 sq km, Sulawesi 189,216 sq km and Papua 421,981 sq km which forms part of the world's second biggest island of New Guinea. The other islands are smaller in size.
The Indonesian archipelago is divided into three groups. The island of Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan, together with the small islands in between, lie on the Sunda Shelf which begin on the coasts of Malaysia and Indo China, where the sea depth does not exceed 700 feet. Papua which is part of the island of New Guinea, and the Aru Islands lie on the Sahul Shelf, which stretches northwards from the Australian coast. Here the sea depth is similar to that of the Sunda Shelf. Located between two shelves is the island group of Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and Sulawesi, where the sea depth reaches 15,000 feet.
The Country's land area is generally covered by thick tropical rain forests where fertile soils are continuously replenished by volcanic eruptions like that on the island of Java. The island of Java has 112 volcanic centers of which 15 are active. The lava ejected has a high degree of fertility.
An additional advantage of the island of Java is that its coastal plains are neither edged by wide swamps as in the case of Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua, nor bordered by coral reefs as in the case of the island of Sulawesi. On the island of Sumatra there is plenty of evidence of past volcanic activities, although the ejected material contained acid which is of less fertility compared with Java.
Climate and Weather
Indonesia's climate and weather is characterized by an equatorial double rainy season. Its variation is caused by the equatorial circulation (Walker circulation) and the meridian circulation (Hardley circulation). The displacement of the latter circulation is closely related to the North-South movement of the sun and its position at a certain period with regard to the earth and the continents of Asia and Australia. These factors contribute to the displacement and intensity of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) being an equatorial through of low pressure. This characterizes the weather of Indonesia, while the prevalence of the West monsoon and the East monsoon (the rainy and dry seasons) are characterizing Indonesia's climate.
Indonesia's monsoon-type climate changes approximately every six months although in recent years weather patterns have been somewhat disrupted as part of global changes in weather. Humidity and temperatures are varying according to the season but temperatures are affected additionally by rime of day, height above sea level and proximity to the sea and exception. The dry season is from June to September and the rainy season from December to March. Intervening periods are transition months in which the weather will be mixed.
Average temperatures are classified as follows: Coastal plains: 28°C; inland and mountain areas: 26°C; higher mountain areas: 23°C, varying with the altitude. Indonesia has an average relative humidity between 70 percent and 90 percent, with a minimum of 73 percent and a maximum of 87 percent.
Indonesia Standard Time
Indonesia's three time zones are as below:
1. Western Indonesia Standard Time equals GMT plus 7 hours (meridian 105 '0 E), covering all provinces in Sumatra and Java, and the provinces of West and Central Kalimantan.
2. Central Indonesia Standard Time equals GMT plus 8 hours (meridian120'0 E), covering the provinces of East and South Kalimantan, all provinces in Sulawesi, and the provinces of Bali, West and East Nusatenggara.
3. Eastern Indonesia Standard Time equals GMT plus 9 hours (meridian 135°E), covering the provinces of Maluku and Papua.
Exclusive Economic Zone
When independence was proclaimed and sovereignty gained, Indonesia had to enact laws to govern the seas in accordance with the geographic structure of an archipelagic state. This, however, did not mean that the country would bar international passage. The laws were necessary instruments for the unity and national resilience of the country, with a territory that embraces all the islands, the islets and the seas in between.
In view of the country's susceptibility to foreign intervention from the sea and for domestic security reasons, on December 13, 1957, the Indonesian Government issued a declaration on the territorial waters of the Republic. It states that all the waters surrounding and between the islands in the territory came within Indonesia's sovereignty. It also determines that the country's territorial water limit is 12 miles, measured from a straight baseline drawn from the outermost points of the islands.
In the past, archipelagic states like Indonesia had unilaterally determined their 200-mile-Exclusive Economic Zones. Today such economic zones are confirmed by the International Convention on the Law of the Sea, which was ratified by the Indonesian Government on October18, 1983, by Act No.5 of the same year. This is the legal basis of the Indonesian - Exclusive Economic Zone.
Due to Indonesia's emergence into an archipelago where its inhabitants, though of one similar ancestry, were separated by seas and therefore lost contacts, have caused the individual development of cultures, including their languages and their growing into diversification.
Nevertheless, the population of Indonesia has been reclassified, not so much on the basis of their racial origins, but more so on the basis of their linguistics identities caused by mentioned diversification, into four ethnic groups. A pure classification according to their racial origins is difficult to realize due to their inter-marriages. These four main ethnic groups are the Melanesians (the mixture between the Sub-Mongoloids with the Wajaks), the Proto-Austronesians (including the Wajaks), the Polynesians and the Micronesians. These Melanesians are again sub-divided into the Acehnese of North Sumatra, the Batak in Northeast Sumatra, the Minangkabaus in West Sumatra, the Sundanese in West Java, the Javanese in Central and East Java, the Madurese on the island of Madura, the Balinese, the Sasaks on the island of Lombok, and Timorese on Timor Island. On the island of Borneo in Indonesia's Kalimantan, one finds the Dayaks. On the island of Sulawesi in the north are the Minahasas and in the center the Torajas, and in the Southern part, the Makasarese and the Buginese. The Ambonese on the group of islands in the Maluku and the Irianese in Papua are classified into the Polynesians and the Proto-Austronesians. The Micronesians are found on tiny islets of Indonesia's eastern borders.
Languages and Dialects
Languages and dialects spoken and written over the whole of the Indonesian archipelago, 150 to 250 in number are usually classified according to the above mentioned ethnic denominations. The main district local languages of Indonesia are among others: the Acehnese, Batak, Sundanese, Javanese, Sasak, Dayak, Minahasa, Toraja, Buginese, Halmahera, Ambonese, Ceramese, several Irianese languages and other such languages. In between these languages there are many other different dialects.
Indonesia's National Language had been officially introduced since Indonesia's independence and is called the BAHASA INDONESIA. Its lexicon and structure is mainly based on the Malay language enriched by Indonesia's lexicon of her multi-Local languages and dialects. Although the Bahasa Indonesia has since been regarded as the Lingua Franca, yet local languages are equally valid and no attempt and intention exist to abolish these local languages and dialects. Therefore, the greater parts of the Indonesian nationals are bilingual.
In August 1973, Indonesia and Malaysia signed a cultural agreement in which similar spelling of both the Malaysian "Bahasa Persatuan" and the Indonesian "Bahasa Indonesia" has been agreed upon.
Race, Culture and Ethnic Groups
The first inhabitant of Indonesia was the Java man, who lived 500,000 years ago, named Pithecanthropus erectus by Eugene Dubois who found the fossils at several places on the island of Java in the vicinity of the Bengawan Solo River. The fossils found in 1891 and 1892 in the village of Trinil, near Solo, were called Homo Soloensis, while those found in Wajak were called Wajakensis. Homo Soloensis with the same characteristics as the Austro-Melanosoid people had roamed to the West (Sumatra) and to the East (Papua).
In the period of 3,000-500 BC, Indonesia was inhabited by Sub-Mongoloid migrants from Asia who later inter-married with the indigenous people. In 1,000 BC, inter-marriage still occurred with Indo-Arian migrants from the South-Asian sub-continent of India. The influx of the Indian settlers until the seventh century AD brought about the Hindu religion spread throughout the archipelago.
Moslem merchants from Gujarat and Persia began visiting Indonesia in the 13th century and established trade links between this country and India and Persia. While conducting trade, the Gujarat and the Arab people also spread the Islamic religion in this area. The first to accept the Islam religion were the coastal kingdoms, which before had embraced Hinduism.
In Aceh, Islam was widely accepted by the community with the Pasai and Perlak Kingdoms becoming the first Moslem kingdoms in the archipelago.
First accepted by court circles, Islam founds its way to the community at a later stage. Particularly in Java, the "Wali Songo" (Islamic preachers) had played a very important role.
It was in 1511, that Portuguese arrived in Indonesia. The arrival of the Portuguese should be linked to the European demand for spices. They were followed by Spaniards, the Dutch and the British. Besides search for spices, they propagate Christianity.
In the rivalry that ensued, the Dutch ultimately succeeded in gaining the trade monopoly in spices throughout the archipelago, thus making the beginning of 350 years of Dutch colonialism over the country.
In the period preceding independence, Indonesia's community was made up of a large variety of ethnic groups or rural communities. The members of each group are tied to each other by a sense of solidarity and identity which finds its roots in the land, language, art, culture and customs they share.
There are about 500 ethnic groups in Indonesia spread from Sabang (the northernmost tip of Sumatra) to Merauke in Papua. The Javanese community is the largest number of Indonesia's total population, followed by the Sundanese, Madurese, Minangkabau, Buginese, Batak and the Balinese. Other ethnic groups are among others the Ambonese, Dayaks, Sasaks, the Acehnese, etc.
Apart from the indigenous communities, other sub-communities of foreign descent are the Chinese, Arabs and Indians.
Population: Number, Growth Rate, and Distribution
The population of Indonesia in 2010 is around 237 641 326 people, including those residing in urban areas as many as 118 320 256 people (49,79 percent) and in rural areas as many as 119 321 070 people (50,21 percent). Among the countries with the largest population in the world, Indonesia ranks fourth after China, India, and the United States.
Population distribution according to the larger islands are: Sumatra island which covers 25.2 percent of the entire Indonesian territory is inhabited by 21.3 percent of the population, Java which covers 6.8 percent is inhabited by 57.5 percent of the population and Papua which covers 21.8 percent is inhabited by 1.5 percent of the population.
Population by Gender
Male population of Indonesia is 119 630 913 and women is 118 010 413. The sex ratio (SR) is 101, meaning there are 101 males for every 100 women. SR by province, the lowest is 94 in West Nusa Tenggara Province and the highest is 113 in the province of Papua. SR in national level for age group 0-4 is 106, ages 5-9 is 106, five-year age groups from 10 to 64 ranges from 93 to 109, and age 65+ is 81.
Population by Age
The median age of population for Indonesia in 2010 is 27.2 years. This figure shows that the population of Indonesia includes in the middle category (intermediate). Residents of an area are considered as young population where the median age is less than 20, medium if the median age is between 20 and 30, and elderly residents if the median age is more than 30 years.
Population dependency ratio is 51.31. This number indicates that for every 100 peoples in productive age group there are around 51 peoples who are not in productive age group. This figure indicates level of economic dependency of population. Urban areas have a dependency ratio 46.59, lower than the rural population with dependency ratio 56.30.
The average age of first marriage is 25.7 years for male population, and 22.3 years for women (estimated by Singulate Mean Age at Marriage /SMAM).
Number of people as recent migrants rises from time to time. The 2010 Population Census recorded 5.396.419 people or 2.5 percent of the population is the interprovincial recent migrants. In percentages, urban recent migrants is more than three times higher than in rural areas which is 3.8 percent compared to 1.2 percent.
The analysis by gender shows that total male migrants is higher than female migrants, counting 2.830.114 compared to 2.566.305 people. This brings the sex ratio of recent migrants to become 110.3. The data strongly relate to a theory that migrants would have been more in urban than in rural areas and males are more mobile. Some provinces such as Kepulauan Riau, Papua Barat and DI Yogyakarta are the main destination for migrants, mostly due to working, looking for job or schooling
Each citizen aged 7 to 15 years obliged to have basic education (The Law Article 6 Number 20 in 2003). Population Census 2010 result shows the percentage of population aged 7 to 15 years old who have never been to school was 2.51 percent and who left school was 6.04 percent.
The indicators to describe the quality of human resources related to education are educational attainment and literacy rate. The data shows the percentage of population aged 5 years and over who completed junior high school and over was 40.93 percent. This indicates that the quality of human resources by formal education was relatively low. The literacy rate of population aged 15 years and over was 92.37 percent means that over 100 population aged 15 years and over there were 92 literate people. People who can read and write any characters are categorized as literate.
Based on the results of SP 2010, the working age population (15 years and over) amounted to 169.0 million, comprising 84.3 million men and 84.7 million women. Of these number, the number of labor force, which is the population 15 years and over who are economically active or working, seeking work, or willing to work amounted to 107.7 million, comprising 68.2 million men and 39.5 million women. Viewed by region, the number of labor force living in urban areas is 50.7 million people and living in rural areas is 57.0 million people. Of the total labor force, the number of working population is 104.9 million and 2.8 million people are looking for jobs.
Since many centuries ago, Indonesia has been an important passage of trading ships and place to call in for traders from many nations. While trading, they also propagated religious teachings they respectively adhered to local people. Hinduism and Buddhism were propagated by Indian merchants and migrants. Gujarati and Persian merchants brought Islam to Aceh, the most northern tip of Sumatra Island, and other areas later on. Islam was thus developed at coastal areas first before penetrating to hinterlands. In Java, in particular, the role of the nine Islamic holy men (Wali Sanga) in propagating Islam was prominent. Catholicism was first introduced to Indonesia by pastors participating in the Portuguese voyages in search of Indonesian spices. After failing to defend Malacca, the Portuguese went away to land in Larantuka, Flores. From this place Catholicism was propagated and spread for the first time throughout the country. Protestantism was introduces and propagated by Dutch and German missionaries, and later on by American missionaries.
Percentage of Religion Followers according to 2010 Cencus
FLORA & FAUNA
Indonesia is divided into three distinct zoological and geographical zones which includes a transitional area in the central part of the archipelago.
The Western island of the Archipelago display predominantly Asian characteristics of verdant jungles, rare orchids and the giant Rafflesia, (a plant which produces a bloom over 1 meter in diameter). A land where tigers, leopards, elephants, rhinos and thousands of varieties of birds and insects make it their home.
Further east, the central island present a gradual shift from Asian to Australasian flora and fauna. Sulawesi, for example, boasts both monkeys and marsupials, while Komodo is home to a pre-historic giant lizards commonly "dragon" found nowhere else in the world.
The eastern most islands, however, are more indicative of Australasia with bush-like shrubs and hardy plants; brilliantly coloured Lorries, Cukatoos and Australian marsupials become more common place. These wonderfully diverse illustrations of life are protected in numerous nature reserves and National Parks scattered throughout the archipelago.
Marine tourism has taken-off in Indonesia in a big way, with the establishment of protected Marine Parks, professional dive masters and guides, and some of the most colourful, breathtaking sea gardens anywhere in the world.
In the warm tropical, turquoise waters, magnificent coral reefs, alive with color, support myriads types of fish and other marine life. Some of the underwater drop-offs are awesome and downward visibility can be as far as 30 meters in some areas. A journey into this extraordinarily vibrant underwater world is guaranteed to be an unforgettable experience for both snorkelers and scuba divers alike.
An extensive transportation network provides access to all but the most secluded of places in Indonesia. Flying is the most convenient way of hopping across the archipelago with a choice of flights from airports in all provincial and district capital.
Garuda Indonesia is the national flag carrier, serving international as well as major domestic trunk routes. Other airlines include Lion Air, Wing Air, Sriwijaya Air. Indonesia's Air Asia which serves major domestic routes to complete the archipelago's comprehensive airline network as well as international ones to other Asia's cities destination.
Trains are available throughout Java and in parts of Sumatra and invariably enjoyable ways to experience the essence of the country. Comfortable, air-conditioned trains are available, particularly on those services that connect Central and East Java with the capital city of Jakarta, including the Bima Trains (via Yogyakarta and Surakarta), the Argo Bromo Anggrek (via Semarang to Surabaya) and the Parahyangan services (from Jakarta to Bandung).
Buses are also a convenient and relatively cheap way to travel across an island. Nearly all inter-city buses are fully air-conditioned and very comfortable often only stopping for food and fuel. Cars and taxis can be hired of course, and provide perfect opportunities to get off the beaten track and explore independently. An enormous variety of public transport can be found in the towns and cities.
PELNI, the state-owned shipping company now has 30 modern ships, serving all main ports in this archipelago of over 18,100 islands. Regular ferries make island hopping easy and also provide some unique opportunities to experience the beauty of these tropical islands.
ARTS & CRAFTS
Indonesian arts and crafts are powerful and wonderful expressions of life, born out of an extraordinarily rich cultural heritage. Many traditional works of art were developed in the courts of former kingdoms such as those centered in Java and Bali.
"Wayang" theatres from Java and Bali, for example, originate from ancient Hindu mythology and feature portions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata epics adapted to suit local conditions and age-old traditions.
Rigid discipline and artistry are the hallmarks of dances from Java and Bali, but those of Sumatra, Maluku and most of the other islands (one exception is the Gending Sriwijaya of South Sumatra) are characterized by a more flexible gracefulness and charm, a distinction which is further accentuated by an entirely different, non-gamelan, musical accompaniment.
Artistic traditions are actively being preserved in the many art and dance schools which flourish not only in the courts but also in modern, government-run or supervised art academies.
Aromatic spices and a variety of hot chilli peppers are the essence of most Indonesian dishes. Rice is an important part of the national diet for most of the archipelago, but in the eastern islands corn, sago, cassava and sweet potatoes are more common. The enormous wealth of the surrounding seas and oceans, as well as fresh water fisheries, provides an abundance of sea food which can be traditionally served in a number of exciting ways, including baked in banana leaves. As the population of Indonesia is predominantly Moslem, pork is usually not served expect in Chinese, international restaurants, and non Moslem regions such as Bali and Papua. An extensive assortment of tropical and sub-tropical fruit and vegetables can be also be found year-round to tantalize your taste buds.
Dress is normally casual and light clothing is advisable due to the hot, humid climate. Trousers or slacks and shirts are generally considered appropriate but a jacket and tie are required for formal occasions or when making official calls. For certain formal occasions, long-sleeved batik shirts are acceptable.
For Travel to mountain areas, a light sweater or jacket is recommended. Halter tops and shorts are frowned upon in most places except around sports facilities or on the beach. Proper decorum should especially be observed when visiting place of worship.
Sumatera is the second largest island in Indonesia and possibly one of the richest in terms of natural resources and beauty. The Bukit Barisan Mountains stretch for most of the island's length plunging steeply to the sea in the west and rolling onto swampy plains in the east. Perfect cone-shaped volcanoes peak above thick jungles where rare Sumatran tigers and rhinos still roam. Sculpted canyons, mighty rivers, thunderous waterfalls, idyllic lakes and exotic beaches are all a part of this multi faceted island straddling the equator and home of one of Indonesia's largest nature reserves, the Gunung Leuser National Park.
Remnants of ancient civilizations scattered across the main island of Sumatra and its off-shore island are testimony to a long history of outside contact which are major influence on the island's many different cultures and on the culture of the entire country. The north of the island around Aceh is the home of Indonesia's first Islamic Kingdom and still known for its devout population. Further inland is the homeland of the largely Christian Batak tribes, centered round Tapanuli and Lake Toba, while Bukittinggi and Padang in the west are home to the distinctive Minangkabau culture.
The western off shore islands of Nias and Mentawai have traditionally played only a minor part in the politics and the history of the region and have thus remained relatively unchanged, while the Riau island in the busy Straits of Malacca in the east have colourful and illustrious histories stretching back for centuries. Whatever you want, you'll find it in Sumatra!
BALI, WEST & EAST NUSATENGGARA
By far the most popular tourist destination in Indonesia, Bali has remained almost unreal in today's changing world. The island is divided by a string of impressive volcanoes running almost through the center of the island which locals believe to be the home of the gods. Shrouded in mystery and magic, they stretch skyward in majestic splendour and can be seen from almost every point on the island. The Hindu Bali religion pervades the everyday lives of the people. Shrines and temples as well as terraced rice fields dominate the landscape.
The Balinese are amicable people who have managed to preserve their culture despite overwhelming foreign influences brought to the region by an ever increasing number of tourists. Bali's international airport, Ngurah Rai, in the south of the island, is the nation's Eastern Gateway and is served by numerous international airlines and charters. In order to keep up with the growing number of visitors and the need for their comfort, more hotels have been built, ranging from small bungalows in the highlands to the luxurious Nusa Dua tourist resort area, near the airport, on the southern tip of the island.
Water sports have also gained in popularity and Bali can boast of superb surfing, windsurfing, sailing, scuba diving and white water rafting.
For many years, the island of Lombok, just to the east of Bali has existed in the shadow of its more famous neighbour but is now becoming a popular destination in its own right. The mighty volcano of Rinjani dominates the island and provides magnificent panoramas for hundreds of miles. Undisturbed white virgin beaches are typical in Lombok, where the motto is "you can see Bali in Lombok, but not Lombok in Bali". The island of Sumbawa to the east of Lombok is also dominated by a massive volcano, called Tambora, which last erupted in 1815 killing an estimated 92,000 people.
Further east, lie the islands of East Nusa Tenggara, shaped by the power and force of an enormous chain of mountains and volcanoes which begins in the north of Sumatra and stretches east across Java. The province consists of over 550 islands, but is dominated by the three main islands of Flores, Sumba, and Timor.
Occupying a unique position across the Wallace Line, it is one of the world's most dynamic and exotic marine environments with nearly every species of coral and tropical fish represented. In contrast, the arid landscape of eastern and south eastern Nusa Tenggara is the result of hot, dry winds blowing in from the Australian continent and in fact, in many coastal areas not a drop of rain falls during most of the year.
Struck by the Flores's incredible beauty, the Portuguese called it "Flower" island. The island is crowded with volcanoes and mountains including Mount Kelimutu and its three colored crater lakes.
The island of Komodo is home to the world's only pre-historic "Dragon". These giant lizards are the area's major attraction. The Sandalwood island of Sumba is now famous for its horses and an unique style of ikat or cloth weaving. Spirits, both ancestral and natural are worshipped and although some exist in East Sumba, it is in the West that there are a number of enormous megalithic tombs and traditional thatched and peaked huts raised on stilts.
Timor, however, is the principal island in the province in terms of population and it is here that Provincial capital of Kupang is located. The island is rich in culture, beautiful scenery, and magnificent wildlife. Composed of mainly dry, rocky land protecting isolated communities, an assortment of architectural styles has evolved. Unlike other parts of East Nusa Tenggara, the roads in Timor are generally good and public transportation is relatively well developed. Kupang, in fact, is being developed as the Gateway to Nusa Tenggara with regular, direct flights to and from Darwin in Australia as well as with the rest of the archipelago.
Java is a heavily populated island of enormous diversity ranging from unspoiled tropical beaches and and jungles to active volcanoes and ancient monuments. Evidence of a rich and influential history can be found all over the island, particularly in Central Java from the times of the Mataram Empire. During this time a powerful Hindu-Javanese culture flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries, producing remarkable religious monuments, such as Borobudur, the largest monument to Mahayana Buddhism in the world; the Hindu temple complex of Prambanan, dedicated to Shiva and the ancient site of the oldest Hindu temples in Java on the magnificent, mist-shrouded Dieng Plateau.
The first contact point in Indonesia for Indian traders was in West Java and it was here that the Dutch and British first set foot in Indonesia at Banten.
Surrounding the nation's capital of Jakarta on three sides, West Java provides visitors with a great number of fascinating things to see and do; get up close to the remains of the awesome Krakatau; explore the undisturbed wildlife reserve of Ujung Kulon on the south-western tip of Java; admire the Pulau Dua Bird Sanctuary off the coast of Banten and visit isolated communities of the mysterious Baduy; treasure the royal palaces of Cirebon and the world renowned botanical gardens of Bogor.
East Java, too, has an assortment of attractions, ranging from ancient temple sites to beautiful, unspoiled beaches, picturesque highland lakes, colourful marine gardens and fantastic wildlife reserves. Magnificent mountain scenery includes the crater and legendary sea of sand at Mount Bromo, the "sulphur mountain" of welirang and the rugged Ijen Plateau. The provincial capital, Surabaya is second in size to Jakarta, in population and commerce.
The beautiful orchid shaped island of Sulawesi is rapidly becoming one of Indonesia destinations. Magnificent coral gardens and a multitude of tropical marine life protect coastlines of virgin-white beaches; mountains and volcanoes dominate the landscape with over 50 summits reaching for the heavens, some of which are still actively reminding the islanders and the world of their power. The seafaring Bugis dominate the southern tip of Sulawesi. Bugis vessels, in fact, sailed as far as Australia, leaving behind drawings of their ships on the stone and words that have since been integrated into Aboriginal languages of northern Australia. Further north, through rugged and remarkable country is Tana Toraja, often referred to as the "Land of the Heavenly Kings". With a belief that their forefathers descended from heaven onto a mountain generation ago, the torajas have a distinctive culture based on strong animistic belief. They practice an ancestor cult where death and afterlife ceremonies are elaborate and important feasts. A strict hierarchy is followed in the villages and for prominent figures. Burial ceremonies, for example, can take days to perform.
Buffaloes are ceremonially sacrificed and the deceased's remains are placed in a coffin which is then interred in caves hollowed out in high cliffs. The mouth of the cave is guarded by life-like statues, who diligently look out from a balcony at the families and friends they have left behind.
The people of North Sulawesi have a strong tradition of trade and contact with the outside world and it was the Dutch who made the most lasting impact on the development of the area. Apart from introducing a strong political and religious structure, they encouraged the local population to cultivate nutmeg and coconuts, for copra. Today, the main industries of the province are copra and cloves, in fact, North Sulawesi has largest concentration of coconut trees in Indonesia!
The Northern Provincial capital of Manado is one of Indonesia`s international gateway with regular flights to all parts of the Indonesian archipelago. Manado`s main attractions are offshore, however, with truly amazing coral reefs off nearby Bunaken island which are now a protected Marine Park and offer some of the best diving and snorkelling in the world.
Traveling through the Province of East Kalimantan along the mighty Mahakam River is a fascinating and unforgettable adventure. The river carves its way through the jungles and flatlands constantly reshaping and nourishing the land.
Wild orchid drip off tress, bekantans (proboscis mongkeys), orang-utans, crocodiles, clouded leopards, crab-eating macaques, giant butterflies and the legendary hornbill all live here and some can be found nowhere else. A 5,000 acre orchid reservation close to the village of kersik Luwai in the heart of the province cultivates 27 different species of orchid including the very rare black orchid.
As a major producer of oil and timber, the province of East Kalimantan is at present the most industrially advanced region of the island and the second largest province in Indonesia. It is also the home of the original inhabitants of Kalimantan, the Orang Gunung or ``mountain people``. The tribes are collectively called Dayak, although this name is not embraced by many tribes-people themselves, who prefer to be known by their separate tribal names such as Iban, Punan and Banuaq.
Local tribes traditionally live in communal longhouses called lamin or umaq daru. They are built on wooden piles, sometimes as high as 3 meters, as protection against wild animals and flooding. It is in these communal areas that village meetings are held and ceremonies performed, thereby reinforcing the strong tribal bonds that have kept the Dayaks together.
The most common starting points for many journeys and adventures inland are Balikpapan and the provincial capital of Samarinda, with regular boat and flight services to Jakarta. In contrast to the meandering Mahakam River, the Meratus Mountains stride straight through the centre of South Kalimantan province, effectively dividing it into two distinct regions. The eastern part being mountainous and lush with dense tropical rain forests, while the south is much flatter, characterized by large, powerful rivers.
Many villages and settlements have been built along these rivers, particularly the Barito River, by the indigenous majority, the Banjar. The provincial capital of Banjarmasin lies a short distance from the mouth of the Barito River where it meets the Martapura River. The rivers are literally the life-blood od the city and everything revolves around them.
A lot of business is done on the waterways. Apart from stilt houses lining the banks, flourishing floating markets sell an enormous variety of goods including a mouth-watering selection of tropical fruits. The area is vibrant with colourful and distinctive traditional arts and cultures which can be seen in the people`s way of life, art, dance, music, ancestral dress, games and ceremonies.
The province`s exquisite traditional and commercial handicrafts are all made from local raw materials which include precious and semi-precious stones, gold, silver, brass, iron and a wide variety of woods as South Kalimantan is one of the largest wood producers in Indonesia.
West Kalimantan covers an area of over 145,000 sq km, which is rich in a variety of minerals and precious stones and remains largely unexplored. The coastal areas are mainly swamp lands with more than 100 rivers sculpting the flat plains.
MALUKU & PAPUA
Once known as the Mollucas, the famed spice Islands, were once fought over by Indian, Arab, Chinese and later European traders.
The Province of Maluku is blessed with fabulous sea gardens, idyllic, tropical beaches and spectacular landscapes rich with an enormous variety of endemic plant and animal species. The forest-coated mountains of the islands are homes to brilliantly colored king fishers, the red-crested Mollucan cockatoo, and many multi-coloured lorikeets and parrots. There are over 1,000 islands in the province most of which are uninhabited, 90% of Maluku is water which flows over one of the world`s most active volcanic belt. Maluku is also remarkable in that it lies across the most visible zone of transition between Asian and Australian fauna and flora, and because of its Malay-based cultures of western Indonesia and Melanesia.
Forts scattered all over the islands stand as reminders of Maluku`s history, when in the 16th and 17th centuries Europeans established their influence and power in the region. They also left their mark on many other aspects of life in the islands including music, dance and religion, making the local culture a fascinating blend of east and west.
The main gateway into Maluku is through the provincial capital of Ambon, which is served by regular flights to most parts of the archipelago. Air and sea transportation connect the islands themselves together very well with 79 seaports and 25 airports. Good roads on many of the islands provide easy access to the more remote places of interest.
Further to the east is a torrid land rising from the sea with snow caps covering 5,000 meter-high mountain peaks, towering over glacier lakes and some of the most impenetrable jungles in the world. The land is Papua which is Indonesia`s largest and most eastern province. It is a land of exceptional natural splendour, with beautiful scenic beaches, immense stretches of marshlands, cool grassy meadows and powerful rivers cutting gorges and tunnels through dark, dense primeval forests.
The people of the island can be divided into more than 250 sub-groups, which are closely related to the islands along the southern rim of the Pacific and include among others, the Marind-anim, Yah`ray, Asmat, Mandobo, Dani and Afyat. Those in the central highlands still preserve their customs and traditions and, because communications have always been difficult here, different tribes have lived for centuries in isolation of each other for the most part, resulting in an incredibly diverse mixture of cultures and languages.
The Provincial capital of Jayapura is built on hills which slope down to the sea and is accessible by boat and plane. It was here in fact, that General MacArthur Assembled his fleet for the invasion of the Philippines during the Second World War, remains of which can still be found.