In 2004 presidential election was held in which Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono with 60 percent of the votes was to become Indonesia's first directly elected president. Five years later, in 2009, held new presidential elections in which Yudhoyono won re-election. His party, the Democratic Party (PD), the same year became the largest party in parliamentary elections and now leads a coalition government with five other parties. President Yudhoyono has in its election program priority poverty reduction, combating terrorism and to deal with the country's widespread corruption, among other things influenced the police and judiciary. Progress towards greater respect for human rights has been made, but fundamental structural problems remain, including lack of legal certainty.
Indonesia was marked by a long protracted conflict in the so-called province of Aceh, where separatists since 1976 has sought independence from the Indonesian central government. A peace agreement was reached, however, in 2005 which brought an end to the conflict that had claimed around 15 000 casualties, many of them civilians. Aceh received by the peace agreement a greater measure of self-government and peace has been maintained since then. The tsunami that struck Aceh in December 2004 claimed 170 000 lives and caused great material destruction. At the same time the world's interest for the region which helped to give the nascent peace talks a valuable boost. Indonesia has continued to be seriously affected by natural disasters after the tsunami disaster. It has also, over the years been subject to several terrorist acts. Bomb attacks in Bali in 2002 and 2005 harvested together over 200 casualties. The attacks were carried out by Islamist organizations have expressed concern that a growing religious radicalization of Indonesia. The latest bombing took place in Jakarta in July 2009. Opinion polls in the country have shown that support among Indonesians for radical Islamic organizations decreased recently, while the central government has taken steps to try to prevent further attacks.
Economic growth has increased in recent years and the Indonesian market, arousing interest in many parts of the world. Indonesia's economy is the economy in Southeast Asia who escaped lightly global recession that followed the financial crisis 2008/09. Indonesia is one of the few countries in the world (along with India and China) showed positive growth in 2009. Sound macroeconomic policies and a sound financial sector is highlighted as explanatory factors as well as to foreign investment and foreign trade plays a minor role in the economy compared to most neighboring countries. Despite positive economic growth before over the years, unemployment and poverty remain widespread in certain parts of the country. 15 percent of the population estimated to live below the national poverty line.
Brief historical background Dutch colonization of Indonesia began in the early 1600s. After Japan's occupation of the area (1942-45), nationalist leader Soekarno proclaimed Indonesia an independent state. After failed Dutch attempt to regain power, the country's independence was recognized internationally 1949th Under President Soekarno leadership (1945-67) came to the heterogeneous and multicultural islands to merge more and more into a nation. His successor, President Soeharto, shifted to a more authoritarian rule for over three decades. At the same time achieved significant economic progress. Soeharto was forced to resign in 1998 after violent student protests and riots in the aftermath of the Asian crisis. After Soehartos cases, Indonesia has held a number of presidents over the direction the country is increasingly democratized. Since the fall of 2004 led the country by the reformist president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.
Caroline Silfverstolpe Desk Officer 08-405 56 67