Zimbabwe

​BRIEF HISTORY 

The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the [British] South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and an uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country’s president since 1987. General elections held in March 2008 contained irregularities but still amounted to a censure of the ZANU-PF-led government with the opposition winning a majority of seats in parliament. MDC-T opposition leader Morgan TSVANGIRAI won the most votes in the presidential polls, but not enough to win outright. Difficult negotiations over a power-sharing "government of national unity," in which MUGABE remained president and TSVANGIRAI became prime minister, were finally settled in February 2009. MUGABE was reelected president in June 2013. As a prerequisite to holding the elections, Zimbabwe enacted a new constitution by referendum, although many provisions in the new constitution have yet to be codified in law.

 

Zimbabwe is also a member of ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO.

 

http://www.kemlu.go.id/harare/Picture/tf/zimmap.jpg 

 

 

GEOGRAPHY

Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia

Bordering Countries: Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia

Total Area: 390,757 sq km

 

 

CLIMATE

Tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

 

 

TERRAIN

Mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east

 

 

NATURAL RESOURCES

Coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals

 

http://www.kemlu.go.id/harare/Picture/tf/harare.jpg 

Harare, Capital City of Zimbabwe

 

 

POPULATION

13,771,721 (July 2014, CIA World Factbook)

 

ETHNIC GROUPS

African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1%.

 

 

NATIONALITY

Noun: Zimbabwean(s)

Adjective: Zimbabwean

 

 

LANGUAGES

English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects.

  

 

COUNTRY NAME

Conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe

Conventional short form: Zimbabwe

Former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia

 

 

TYPE OF GOVERNMENT

Parliamentary Democracy

 

 

CAPITAL CITY

Harare

 

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands.

 

INDEPENDENCE

18 April 1980 (from UK)

 

 

NATIONAL HOLIDAY

Independence Day 18 April, Unity Day 22 December

 

 

LEGAL SYSTEM

Mixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law

 

 

EXECUTIVE BRANCH

Chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa (since December 2014) and Vice President Phelekezela Mphoko (since December 2014); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa (since December 2014) and Vice President Phelekezela Mphoko (since December 2014)

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly

Elections: presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); elections last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership

Election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 61.1%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 34.4%, Welshman NCUBE 2.7% other 1.8%

 

LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

Bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate (80 seats - 60 members elected by popular vote for a five-year term, 18 traditional chiefs elected by the Council of Chiefs and 2 seats reserved for people with disabilities) and a House of Assembly (270 seats - members elected by popular vote for five-year terms and 60 seats reserved for women who are identified by their parties and nominated by proportional representation)

Elections: last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 37 MD-T 21, MDC-N 2, chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 197, MDC-T 70, MDC-N 2, independent 1 

 

JUDICIAL BRANCH

Supreme Court; High Court.

 

 

POLITICAL PARTIES AND LEADERS

African National Party (ANP): Egypt DZINEMUNHENZVA

Movement for Democratic Change (MDC): Morgan TSVANGIRAI

Peace Action is Freedom for All (PAFA)

United Parties: Abel MUZOREWA

United People's Party: Daniel SHUMBA

Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga): Wilson KUMBULA

Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF): Robert Gabriel MUGABE

Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU): Dumiso DABENGWA

Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance (ZIYA)

 

FLAG DESCRIPTION

Seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green symbolizes agriculture, yellow - mineral wealth, red - blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people.

 

 

ECONOMY BRIEF

Zimbabwe's economy is growing despite continuing political uncertainty. Following a decade of contraction from 1998 to 2008, Zimbabwe's economy recorded real growth of roughly 10% per year in 2010-11, before slowing in 2012-13 due poor harvests and low diamond revenues. The government of Zimbabwe faces a number of difficult economic problems, including infrastructure and regulatory deficiencies, ongoing indigenization pressure, policy uncertainty, a large external debt burden, and insufficient formal employment. Until early 2009, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe routinely printed money to fund the budget deficit, causing hyperinflation. Dollarization in early 2009 - which allowed currencies such as the Botswana pula, the South Africa rand, and the US dollar to be used locally - ended hyperinflation and reduced inflation below 10% per year, but exposed structural weaknesses that continue to inhibit broad-based growth.

 

 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

Corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs

 

 

INDUSTRIES

Mining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages.

 

 

EXPORT COMMODITIES

Cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing.

 

 

IMPORT COMMODITIES

Machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products

 

 

CURRENCY CODE 

Multi Currency, USD widely used, besides Rand (South Africa)

 

INTERNET COUNTRY CODE

.zw