Climate Change

1/8/2016 Friday, January 8, 2016


The United nations Climate Change Conference (COP 21 UNFCCC) was held in Paris, from November 30 –December 11 2015. The conference was a milestone in sustainable development for the Agreement 2015 which is legally binding, and will be in effect after 2020. This agreement is the pinacle of all negotiation efforts in the last decade for global regulation in an effort to reduce emission and controlling climate change.

Results of COP 21 UNFCCC

Paris Agreement:

a.  General:

  • The agreement is binding, fair, balanced, and effective for all parties.
  • The purpose of the agreement is to limit the global temperature rise below 2 ° C from pre-industrial levels and make efforts to limit it to below 1,5 ° C.

b.  Differentiation:

  • The difference (differentiation) of responsibility is reflected in various aspects such as mitigation, adaptation, financing, technology transfer and capacity building, as well as the transparency of action and support.
  • Developed countries take on a leadership role and developing countries contribute according to ability / national capacity.

c.  Mitigation:

  • Each country would strive to achieve the highest emission levels (peaking) as soon as possible globally. Each country will submit contributions to decrease emissions every 5 years.
  • All countries have to submit commitments / contributions of national (applicable to all), and the developed countries to support the implementation of commitments developing countries (differentiation).
  • Contributions for emission reductions should increase each period (progression), and developing countries need support to increase ambition..
  • Each country is encouraged to support the approaches and positive incentives for actions for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and sustainable forest management (REDD +), including through the result-based payments
  • The mechanism of market and non-market can be used by countries in order to reduce emissions.

 d.  Adaptation and loss and damages:

  • Setting a global goal to increase adaptive capacity, strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change.
  • Recognizing the importance of minimizing and addressing the loss and damage as a result of the adverse effects of climate change.

e.  Funding, transfer of technology, and capacity building:

  • Developed countries should provide financial support to developing countries and take the lead in mobilizing funding from various sources.
  • Developing countries may also provide voluntary support.
  • All countries will enhance cooperative action in the field of development and technology transfer.
  • Capacity building will be done to improve the capacity and capability of developing countries.

f.   Transparency, review, and implementation:

  • Stronger transparency framework is to be formed which includes action and support, with the flexibility for developing countries.
  • Global emissions to take stock of the implementation of the action in order to achieve the purpose of the agreement will be carried out in 2023 and then regularly every five years.
  • The Agreement can be ratified by member countries of the Convention at the UN Headquarters in New York started 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017 and will then be acessible  to countries that have not done so.
  • The agreement will be valid (entry into force) a month after at least 55 countries covering 55% of global emissions have joined.


"With these elements in place, markets now have the clear signal they need to unleash the full force of human ingenuity and scale up investments that will generate low-emissions, resilient growth. What was once unthinkable has now become unstoppable." – UN SG, Ban Ki Moon

3.      COP Decision:

  • COP 21 UNFCCC also produce COP decision that includes the operationalization of the Paris Agreement in terms of mitigation, adaptation, loss and damage, financing, development and technology transfer, capacity building, transparency of action and support, global stocktake, and facilitation of implementation and compliance.
  • Decision will also contains an increase in actions for the period before 2020 that include mitigation and funding support.
  • In relation to funding, developed countries are encouraged to increase financial support with a concrete roadmap to achieve the provision of funding of US $ 100 billion on an annual basis by 2020 for mitigation and adaptation. 

Indonesia's Interests

Indonesia as an archipelagic country, vulnerable to climate change, given that:

  • Amount of population in coastal areas;
  • Large coastal area and perimeter;
  • Constitutes of small islands;
  • Large forests and ecosystems;
  • Natural disasters related to climate change.

In relation to the Paris agreement Indonesia's interests are for:

  • Displaying balance, fairness, as well as not hindering the development of developing countries;
  • All developed countries are, expected to contribute more to mitigation and adaptation actions, through the mobilization of funds and other supports;
  • The respect of the rights as well as the involvelemnts of the local communities;
  • Covering the Importance of maintaining the forests and seas;
  • Boosting the acceleration of implementation for the pre-2020 period; 
  • Reflecting the differencees in the mitigation efforts: developed countries have to be greater dan developing countries due to differing historical responsibilities.;
  • Supporting the  adaptation efforts related to the situation in Indonesia which are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change;
  • Reflecting the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) dan respective capabilities (RC);
  • Inclusion of incentives from developed countries for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and sustainable forest management (REDD Plus) activities;
  • Ensuring the provision of funding before and after 2020 which  are predictable and sustainable to increase over time when compared to the existing commitments (USD 100 billion until 2020).

Indonesia' Role

On Leaders' Event opening of COP 21 UNFCCC, the President of Indonesia expressed support for the success of the Paris Agreement. Moreover, given the vulnerability of Indonesia in the field of climate change and the commitment of Indonesia to be the solution to climate change.

In relation to this, the efforts and policies that have been pursued by Indonesia in emission reduction in the field of energy, land and forest, and maritime have been conveyed.

At the High-level Segment on 7-8 December 2015, Indonesia submitted a statement that as the largest archipelagic country in the world which has one of the largest tropical forest, Indonesia isaware of the role of forests as carbon sinks and other benefits which are also enjoyed by other countries. Indonesia called for increased international cooperation.

Additionally Indonesia submitted steps to address the fire and prevent the problem from happening again, including through law enforcement, strengthening forest governance, as well as ecosystem restoration. At the regional level, Indonesia is also a participant in the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze which aims to tackle forest fires through international cooperation. 

The success of COP21 in Paris can not be separated from the role of all parties, including non-state actors. In this regard, the Indonesian pavilion became an important outreach tool and a platform that is solution oriented to the problem of global climate change.

On November 30, 2015, the Indonesian President with the President of Gabon, President of Colombia, Prime Minister of Norway, the UN special envoy for climate change, as well as the Ministers of Germany, UK, and Peru have issued a joint statement in the event of Forests as a Solution Key to Climate Change.

The Leaders reaffirmed the commitment to intensify efforts to protect the forest; restoration of forests and degraded lands; support the development of low-carbon region, and to support the implementation of REDD +.

The Indonesian President with the President of the United States, the French President, Prime Minister of India and the leaders of 16 other key countries have launched Mission Innovation which is a global collaboration platform that is supported by 19 major countries, to encourage the development of clean energy.

Indonesia's view towards the Paris Agreement

For Indonesia, the Treaty of Paris was to accommodate the urge Indonesia to the create a global settings that reflected balance and fairness. The implementation of the obligations of developing countries adapted to national capabilities and support, especially funding.

Furthermore, the agreement also covers the importance of efforts to reduce emissions and adaptation, marine and forest conservation, increase renewable energy, and the participation of indigenous peoples (local communities) in curbing climate change, which has been championed by Indonesia.

The Paris agreement can encourage low-carbon investments in the framework of realizing a green economy and sustainable development.

The Paris Agreements encourages the mobilization of funding from various sources, especially for adaptation to climate change that are important to countries vulnerable to climate change, including Indonesia.

Indonesia's Commitment

In 2009, Indonesia has announced a voluntary commitment to reduce emissions by 26% below the level of a business as usual (BAU) by 2020 and as much as 41% with International help.

In 2015, Indonesia delivered an Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) with emission reduction targets by 2030 that are as large as 29% by its own efforts, and 41% with international assistance. The INDC of Indonesia included the energy, industry, agricultural sectors, land-use, land-use change and forestry, and waste.

Further Action

At the national level, Indonesia needs to ratify the Paris Agreement that has been reached. The alignment of policies at national and regional levels also need to be implemented  to ensure the achievement of Indonesia's international commitments in relation to climate change.

Climate change is a global problem that requires a concerted effort to solve. To that end, the synergy between all stakeholders are necessary. Dissemination of information, cooperation, and coordination of multi-sectors will be important in implementing paris Agreement.

Commitment to mitigation in order to control climate change from around the country are expected to increase from time to time. Therefore, Indonesia must prepare strategies and policies in order to increase its commitment, particularly in terms of emission reduction.

Considering the vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, Indonesia needs to support the use of climate funding commitments of USD 100 billion per year by 2020 in climate change adaptation.

Indonesia needs to encourage the sharing of best practices and South Cooperation - South in curbing climate change.

At the global level, Indonesia needs to continue to push for the realization of the commitment of developed countries who are expected to take a larger role in curbing climate change. The commitment is not only a reduction in emissions, but in particular the provision of funding for mitigation and adaptation activities to climate change in developing countries which is predictable and increasing over time.

(Source: Directorate of Development, Economic, and Environmental Affairs)