General information about:
Official Name : United Republic of Tanzania
Government : Presidential Republic
Capital City : Dodoma
Area : 947.300 km2
Population : 48.663 million (est 2016, IMF)
National Anthem : Mungu Ibariki Afrika
Religion : Christian 61,4%, Moslem 35,2%, folk religion 1,8%, others 1,6%
Zanzibar : 99% Moslem
Language : Swahili, English
Currency : Tanzanian Shilling (TZS) 1 US$ = 2.188 TZS
National Day : 26 April (union day of Tanganyika and Zanzibar)
Ethnic group : Mainland: Africa 99% (more than 120 ethnic groups), 1% (Asia, Europe, and Arabs)
Zanzibar: 75% Arab, 15% (Africa and mix Arab-Africa)
President : John Pombe Magufuli (since October 2015)
Prime Minister : Majaliwa Kassim Majaliwa (since November 2015)
Minister of Foreign Affairs : Augustine Philip Mahiga (since November 2015)
Tanzanian Ambassador for Indonesia : Ramadhan Dau (accredited in Kuala Lumpur. Amb. Dau is appointed in September 2016 and is waiting for credentials from Malaysia)
Indonesian Ambassador for Tanzania : Zakaria Anshar (since 2013)
GDP : 45,899 billion (est 2016, IMF)
GDP per capita : 943,797 (est 2016, IMF)
Major export commodity : Gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
Major import commodity : Consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Membership in International Organization : ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
The flag of Tanzania consists of a yellow-edged black diagonal band divided diagonally from the lower hoist-side corner, with a green upper triangle and blue lower triangle. Adopted in 1964 to replace the individual flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, it has been the flag of the United Republic of Tanzania since the two states merged that year. The design of the present flag incorporates the elements from the two former flags. The green alludes to rich agricultural resources of the country, while black represents the Swahili people who are native to Tanzania, the gold stripes stand for Tanzania's mineral wealth, and the blue epitomizes the Indian Ocean, as well as the nation's numerous lakes and rivers.
The name "Tanzania" was created as a clipped compound of the names of the two states that unified to create the country: Tanganyika and Zanzibar.The name "Tanganyika" is derived from the Swahili words tanga ("sail") and nyika ("uninhabited plain", "wilderness"), creating the phrase "sail in the wilderness". It is sometimes understood as a reference to Lake Tanganyika. The name of Zanzibar comes from "zengi", the name for a local people (said to mean "black"), and the Arabic word "barr", which means coast or shore
Tanzania was formed from the union of the mainland territory of Tanganyika and the coastal archipelago of Zanzibar. From 1880s to 1919, Tanganyika was a colony and part of German East Africa, and became a British mandate under the League of Nations. The status is kept until its independence in 1961. Zanzibar was settled as a trading hub, controlled by the Portuguese in 1498. In 1699, it was controlled by the Sultanate of Oman. In 1840, Omani Sultan, Seyyid Said, moved his capital to Zanzibar.
On December 1962, Tanganyika became a democratic republic under an executive president. Zanzibar overthrew the Arab dynasty and become independent in 1963. The mainland and archipelago merged on 26 April 1064 and renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.
Tanzania lies between latitudes 5.6944° South, and longitudes 36.3223°. Tanzania is located on the eastern coast of Africa and has an Indian Ocean coastline approximately 800 kilometres (500 mi) long. It also incorporates several offshore islands, including Unguja (Zanzibar), Pemba, and Mafia.The country is the site of Africa's highest and lowest points: Mount Kilimanjaro, at 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level, and Lake Tanganyika, at 352 metres (1,155 ft) below sea level.
Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the southwest lies Lake Nyasa. Central Tanzania is a large plateau, with plains and arable land. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore.
Climate varies greatly within Tanzania. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77.0–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F). Annual temperature is 20 °C (68.0 °F). The climate is cool in high mountainous regions.
Tanzania has two major rainfall regimes: one is uni-modal (October–April) and the other is bi-modal (October–December and March–May).The former is experienced in southern, central, and western parts of the country, and the latter is found in the north from Lake Victoria extending east to the coast. The bi-modal regime is caused by the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.
Tanzania is divided into 26 regions (mikoa), 21 on the mainland and 5 in Zanzibar (three on Unguja, two on Pemba) and 99 districts (wilaya). The 26 regions are Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West.
Tanzania is bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south and sea border with Comoros.
Dodoma, the capital city of Tanzania since 1973, lies in the center of Tanzania, while Dar es Salaam serves as commercial capital and port. It is home to National Assembly, however, government offices and foreign missions remain in Dar es Salaam.
Tanzania's population is 48.663 million (IMF est. 2016), the largest as well as the lowest population density in East Africa. Almost a third of the population is urban. Tanzania's youthful population, about two-thirds of the population, is under 25. For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement. Tanzania was Africa's largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi and DRC.
The parliament consists of National Assembly of Tanzania (Bunge) and Zanzibar House of Representatives.
National Assembly of Tanzania has 295 members which include the Attorney General, 5 elected from the Zanzibar House of Representative to participate in the Parliament, special women's seats (made up of 20% of the seats a particular party has in the house), 181 constituent members of Parliament from the mainland, and 50 from Zanzibar.
Zanzibar's House of Representatives has 81 members with jurisdiction over all non-union matters and allowed to make laws for Zanzibar without the approval of the union government as long as it does not involve union-designated matters.
President of Tanzania is elected by direct popular vote for 5 year terms. The president appoints a prime minister who serves as the government's leader in the National Assembly. The president selects his cabinet from among National Assembly members. The Constitution also empowers him to nominate 10 non-elected members of Parliament, who also are eligible to become cabinet members.
Tanzania has a five-level judiciary combining the jurisdictions of tribal, Islamic, and British common law. Appeal is from the primary courts through the district courts, resident magistrate courts, to the high courts, and Court of Appeals.
Judges are appointed by the Chief Justice, except those for the Court of Appeals and the High Court who are appointed by the president. The Zanzibar court system parallels the legal system of the union, and all cases tried in Zanzibar courts, except for those involving constitutional issues and Islamic law, can be appealed to the Court of Appeals of the union. A commercial court was established in September 1999 as a division of the High Court.
2. Political party
Tanzania adopts multiparty system with 22 political parties registered. In 31th October 2010 general election, six parties took part as follows:
- Party of Democracy and Development (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo )
- Revolutionary Party (Chama Cha Mapinduzi)
- Democratic Party
- National Convention for Construction and Reform (Mageuzi)
- Tanzania Labor Party
- United Democratic Party
Tanzania has achieved high growth rate based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism. GDP growth in 2009-2015 was an impressive 6-7% per year. Tanzania used fiscal stimulus and monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession. The economy depends on agriculture which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports and employs more than half of its workforce. Its crop consists of maize, cassava, beans, banana, cotton, sisal, rice, cashew nut, coffee and tea. Industry and construction is a major and growing component of Tanzanian economy, contributing 22% of GDP. The components include mining, manufacture, energy and natural gas, and construction. The vast majority of the country's mineral export revenue comes from gold and gemstones; diamond and Tanzanite. Travel and tourism contributed more than 10% of GDP with main object Zanzibar and national parks.
Bilateral Relationship with Indonesia
Indonesia and Tanzania have a long history of good relations. Indonesia opens its diplomatic representative in Dar es Salaam since 1964. Meanwhile, Tanzania's interests in Indonesia are accredited from its High Commission in Kuala Lumpur.
The founding fathers of the two countries, President Soekarno and President Julius K. Nyerere are both architecting the Non Aligned Movement. The cordial relations are further strengthened by the exchange of visit of head of states from both sides, among others:
- The visit of President Julius K. Nyerere to Indonesia, 8 October 1981;
- The visit of President Ali Hassan Mwinyi to Indonesia, 3 March 1987;
- The visit of President Soeharto to Dar es Salaam, 5 December 1991;
The cordial bilateral relationship is also mirrored by support of each other's candidacy in international fora.
In the sector of economy, the bilateral cooperation is emphasized on agriculture. Indonesia established Farmer's Agriculture and Rural Training Centre (FARTC) in Mkindo, Morogoro, Tanzania in 1996 Indonesia, where Indonesian agriculture experts provides training for Tanzanian farmers.
In 2004, both sides have signed MoU on the Establishment of a Joint Commission for Bilateral Cooperation. The joint commission, known as Indonesia-Tanzania Joint Agriculture Cooperation Committee (JACC), served as a vehicle to improve agricultural sector cooperations, such as capacity building through training, joint research, and the expansion of market access to agricultural products.
The level of current economic trade between the two countries has not reflected its true potentials. The total bilateral trade volume is still considerably small and mostly conducted through third parties. Indonesia main export commodities to Tanzania are garment, soap, instant noodles, stationery, furniture and apparel, while Indonesia imports cotton, peanut, fruits and other agricultural products from Tanzania.
Indonesia-Tanzania trade volume (in thousand USD)
|OIL AND GAS||1,5||10,1||0,0||0,0||0,0||0,00||0,0||0,0||0,00|
|NON OIL AND GAS||390.482,6||300.405,9||244.302,7||222.148,2||235.405,0||-12,31||153.969,8||148.395,2||-3,62|
|OIL AND GAS||1,5||10,1||0,0||0,0||0,0||0,00||0,0||0,0||0,00|
|NON OIL AND GAS ||298.566,3||236.644,9||192.714,5||202.490,4||213.953,6||-7,89|
|OIL AND GAS||0,0||0,0||0,0||0,0||0,0||0,00||0,0||0,0||0,00|
|NON OIL AND GAS||91.916,3||63.761,0||51.588,2||19.657,8||21.451,4||-33,55||7.876,8||45.470,8||477,27|
|OIL AND GAS||1,5||10,1||0,0||0,0||0,0||0,00||0,0||0,0||0,00|
|NON OIL AND GAS||206.650,0||172.883,9||141.126,3||182.832,6||192.502,2||-0,86||138.216,2||57.453,6||-58,43|
|Source: BPS, Processed by Trade Data and Information Center, Ministry of Trad|
3. Social and Culture
The two countries have been developing the bilateral socio-cultural cooperation, especially in education and training, particularly under the South-South Cooperation scheme. Indonesia has provided training programs for agriculture, fisheries and information technology for the government officials and academicians. Every year, the Indonesian government also offers Dharmasiswa and Developing Countries Partnership Program scholarship for Tanzanian students to participate.