COUNTRY PROFILE 

General Information


General information about:


Official Name                                             :    Republic of Rwanda

Government                                               :    Presidential Republic

Capital City                                                 :    Kigali

Area                                                            :    26.338 km2

Population                                                   :    11.590 million (est 2016, IMF)

National Anthem                                         :    Rwanda Nziza

Religion                                                       :    Catholic 49,5%, Protestant 39,4%, Other Christian 4,5%, Moslem 1,8%, others 4,8%

Language                                                    :    Kinyarwanda, French, English, Swahili         

Currency                                                    :    Rwanda Franc (RWF) 1 US$ = 808 RWF

National Day                                               :    1 July (independence day)    

Ethnic group                                               :    Hutu (Bantu) 84%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%

President                                                    :    Paul Kagame (since 24 March 2000)

Prime Minister                                            :    Anastase Murekezi  (since 24 July 2014)

Minister of Foreign Affairs                          :    Louise Mushikiwabo (since December 2009)

Rwanda Ambassador for Indonesia           :    Guillaume Kavaruganda

Indonesian Ambassador for Rwanda         :    Zakaria Anshar, accredited in Dar es Salaam (since 2013)

GDP                                                           :    8,940 billion (est 2016, IMF)

GDP per capita                                          :    732,463 (est 2016, IMF)

Major export commodity                            :    Coffee, tea, ore

Major import commodity                            :    Foodstuffs, machines and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction materials




Rwanda's flag was changed because it had become associated with the brutality of the 1994 genocide. The new flag was adopted in October 2001, consist of three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band. Blue represents happiness and peace, yellow economic development and mineral wealth, green hope of prosperity and natural resources; the sun symbolizes unity, as well as enlightenment and transparency.



Rwanda was a centralized monarchy under a succession of Tutsi kings. In 1899 Rwanda became German's colony. After German's defeat during World War I, Rwanda became a mandate territory of the League of Nations under the administration of Belgium in 1919. From 1959, tension were escalated and Hutu as majority ethnic group overthrew the ruling Tutsi king, targeted the Batutsi, causing thousands of deaths, and sending almost two million of them into exile.


In 1962, Rwanda gained independence. However, the first and second president of the republic institutionalized discrimination against Batutsi and subjected them to period of massacres. The exiled Rwanda refugees formed the Rwandese Alliance for National Unity (ANU) in 1979, to end divisive politics and genocide ideology, repeated massacres, statelessness and the lack of peaceful political exchange. In 1987, RANU became the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF).


 On 1 October 1990, the RPF launched an armed liberation struggle and ousted the dictatorship in 1994 and ended the genocide of more than one million Batutsi and massacres of moderate Bahutu who opposed the genocide. On 4 July 1994, RPF formed a Government of National Unity headed by President Pasteur Bizimungu, bringing parties that did not participate in the genocide together. In 2000, RPF appointed Major General Paul Kagame as the President of the Republic to lead the coalition government.


In 2003 President Paul Kagame was elected to serve a term of seven years. During those seven years, the country made unprecedented socio-economic and political progress and consolidated peace, stability as well as social cohesion among Rwandans. In 2010, President Paul Kagame was re-elected to serve a second term and on a platform of rapid development for the transformation of the lives of all Rwandans.



Rwanda is a landlocked country, known as the land of a thousand hills. Rwanda has five volcanoes, twenty three lakes and numerous rivers, some forming the source of the River Nile. Nyabarongo River, the country's longest river is located in the east part of the country. Mountains and lakes dominate central and western part of Rwanda. Northern part is famous with mountain gorilla tourism, while south past is predominantly savanna, plains and swamps.


Rwanda is located in the East Africa continent and lies between latitudes 2.0241° South and longitudes 29.6695° East. At 26,338 square kilometres (10,169 sq mi), Rwanda is the fourth smallest on the African mainland after Gambia, Swaziland, and Djibouti. The entire country is at a high altitude: the lowest point is the Rusizi River at 950 metres (3,117 ft) above sea level.


Rwanda has a temperate tropical highland climate, with lower temperatures than are typical for equatorial countries because of its high elevation. Typical daily temperature ranges between 12 and 27 °C with little variation through the year. There are some temperature variations across the country; the mountainous west and north are generally cooler than the lower-lying east. There are two rainy seasons in the year; the first runs from February to June and the second from September to December. These are separated by two dry seasons: the major one from June to September, during which there is often no rain at all, and a shorter and less severe one from December to February. Rainfall varies geographically, with the west and northwest of the country receiving more precipitation annually than the east and southeast.


Rwanda is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, Uganda to the north, Tanzania to the east, and Burundi to the south. Kigali is the capital and largest city of Rwanda. It is situated near the geographic center of the country. The city has been the economic, cultural, and transport hub of Rwanda since it became capital at independence in 1962.



1.    Government

  1.  Legislative

    Rwanda adopted bicameral parliamentary system, which consists of two chambers, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.


    The Senate, as the upper house, has 26 members elected for eight-year terms: 12 elected by provincial and sectoral councils, 8 appointed by the President, 4 by the Forum of Political organizations, 2 elected by universities and higher learning institution.


    The Chamber of Deputies, as the lower house has 80 members: 53 elected by proportional representation with a 5% threshold, 24 female members elected by provincial council, 2 by the National Youth Council and 1 by the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled. It is the only legislative chamber with higher proportion of women members in the world..

  2.  Executive

    The President of Rwanda is elected by popular vote for a seven-year term, and eligible for a second term. The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the president.

  3.  Judiciary

The Rwandan legal system is based on Belgian and German civil codes and customary law. There are courts of the first instance, provincial courts, courts of appeal, and a court of cassation. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial power and with the High Council of the Judiciary oversees the courts of lower ordinary jurisdictions and courts of the special jurisdictions in Rwanda.


2.    Political party

Rwanda adopts multi-party system. List of Rwanda political party as follows:

  • Centrist Democratic Party (PDC)
  • Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda (UDPR)
  • Islamic Democratic Party (PDI)
  • Liberal Party (PL)
  • Party for Progress and Concord (PPC)
  • Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
  • Rwandan Socialist Party (PSR)
  • Social Democratic Party (PSD)
  • Solidarity and Prosperity Party (PSP)



Rwanda is a rural country with 90% of the population works in agriculture, mineral and agro-processing. Tourism, coffee and tea are the main foreign exchange. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with demand, resulting in food imports. The 1994 genocide crippled the economy, making the country suffered heavily. However, after the genocide, Rwanda show substantial progress and rehabilitate its economy. Rwanda economic growth is recorded in the range of 7-8%. The industrial sector is still small, contributing 14.8% of GDP. The products resulting from these sectors include cement, agricultural products, beverages small scale, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic equipment, textiles and cigarettes. The mining sector includes cassiterite, wolframite, gold and coltan. The service sector Rwanda is one of the major contributors to GDP, around 43%, including banking and finance, wholesale and retail trade, hotels, restaurants, transport, communication etc. Tourism became a source of a growing economy with gorilla tracking as its main attraction.


Bilateral Relationship with Indonesia

1.    Politics

Indonesia and Rwanda enjoy cordial bilateral relation based on mutual understanding, which is reflected from mutual support in various international forums. The two countries also shared the same view on various international issues. The bilateral relation is further strengthened by the visit of President Paul Kagame to Indonesia on 30th October 2014.


2.    Economy

Total bilateral trade volume is still considerably small. However, there is room for improvement which can be seen from the steadily increasing bilateral trade every year. Indonesia's major export commodities to Rwanda are soaps, consumer goods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Meanwhile Indonesia imports coffee, tea, mate, and spices from Rwanda.


Indonesia-Rwanda trade volume (in thousand USD)







(%) 2015/





OIL AND GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,02,60,00
NON OIL AND GAS1.654,11.027,11.243,01.625,1434,1-19,88133,13.662,82.651,56
OIL AND GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,00,00,00
NON OIL AND GAS 1.645,6985,01.125,11.623,7421,0-19,96120,03.626,12.922,41
OIL AND GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,02,60,00
NON OIL AND GAS8,542,1118,01,313,1-22,6513,136,7179,13
TRADE BALANCE1.637,1942,81.007,11.622,4407,9-20,04106,83.586,83.257,43
OIL AND GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,0-2,60,00
NON OIL AND GAS1.637,1942,81.007,11.622,4407,9-20,04106,83.589,53.259,91
Sumber: BPS, Processed by Trade Data and Information Center, Ministry of Trade


Sumber: BPS, Processed by Trade Data and Information Center, Ministry of Trade

3.    Social and Culture 

The two countries have been developing good bilateral cooperation in the sphere of sociocultural. Rwanda participated in training program conducted by Indonesia under the scheme of Third Country Training Program (TCTP) supported by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Indonesia also play active role in providing training for Burundian in various sectors, especially under the South-South Cooperation program. Every year, Indonesian government offers Darmasiswa scholarship and Developing Countries Partnership Program (KNB) scholarship for students from Rwanda to participate.