Recognition of the Slovak Republic by IndonesiaWhen the Federal Parliament of the Czechoslovak Republic dissolved on 31st December 1992 and the Slovak Republic became an independent state, the Republic of Indonesia granted recognition of its sovereignty and independence on the same date. Indonesia was one of the first countries to recognize Slovak independence, because Czechoslovakia and Indonesia have had long standing good and friendly relations since the era of President Soekarno.
After granting its recognition to the Slovak Republic on the 1st January 1993, the Republic of Indonesia accredited the Embassy of Indonesia in Prague, Czech Republic, to also cover the Slovak Republic. In 1995, Indonesia and Slovakia officially opened their Embassies consecutively in each capital city: Bratislava and Jakarta. Here is the sequence of the Indonesian Ambassadors to the Slovak Republic that followed:
- Madam Sri Andalia Widodo Sastroamidjojo, MA (November 1995 – March 1999);
- Mr. Malikus Suamin (30 March 1999 – 30 April 2002);
- Mr. Bintang P. Simorangkir (18 November 2002 – 30 November 2005);
- Mr. Lutfi Rauf (17 November 2006 – 30 July 2008);
- Mr. Harsha E. Joesoef (March 2009 – October 2012);
- Mr. Djumantoro Purbo (14 January 2013 – 30 January 2017);
- Madam Adiyatwidi Adiwoso (12 September 2017 - present).
Meanwhile the Slovak Ambassadors to Republic of Indonesia who served in Jakarta as follows:
- Ing. CSc. Peter Ambrovič (May 1995 - May 1998);
- JUDr. Milan Lajčiak (December 1998 - June 2003);
- PhDr. Peter Holásek (August 2003 - June 2009);
- Mgr. Štefan Rozkopál (August 2009 - September 2013);
- Michal Slivovič, MA (February 2014 – July 2018);
- JUDr. Jaroslav Chlebo (Designated)
Bilateral Relation between Indonesia and Slovakia
Over the years, Indonesia and Slovakia have intensified their friendly and mutually benefit relations in various areas. It is also indicated by the mutual visits of high ranking government officials (from presidential level and ministerial level) as well as parliamentary delegations.
During the second tenure of Prime Minister Vladimír Mečiar from 13 December 1994 – 30 October 1998, Minister of Foreign and European Affairs of Slovakia, Madam Zdenka Kramplová, visited Indonesia in February 1998 and met with Minister of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia Mr. Ali Alatas to discuss bilateral matters.
In March 29–30 of 2010, Minister of Foreign and European Affairs of Slovakia, Miroslav Lajcak, visited Jakarta and met with Minister of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia, Mr. Marty Natalegawa to discuss how to enhance the good relations between the two countries not only in political issues but also economic cooperation as well as business to business. During his visit, the signing of the Agreement on Visa Exemption for Diplomatic and Service passport holders of Indonesia and Slovakia took place.
The milestones in the relation between Indonesia and Slovakia have been the state visit of the President of Indonesia, Megawati Soekarnoputri, to Bratislava in June 2002 and the official visit of the President of Slovakia, Ivan Gašparovič to Jakarta in October 2012.
On the 19th until the 21st of June 2002, President Megawati Soekarnoputri initiated a visit to Slovakia to discuss with her counterpart, President Rudolf Schuster, ways and means to intensify relations and cooperation between Indonesian and Slovakia. The meeting concluded with a joint declaration with 12 areas of priorities which could be based for enhancing the cooperation namely: food security, renewable energy, trade and investment, banking, mass media and broadcasting, higher education, sport and youth, defense, industry, infrastructure and manufacturing, tourism, social and culture cooperation. It was also followed by a signing for establishing of mutual consultation mechanism known as the joint commission between the Foreign Affairs Minister of Indonesia, Mr. Hassan Wirajuda and his counterpart Mr. Eduard Kukan.
The state visit by the President of Slovakia, President Ivan Gašparovič, to Jakarta from the 9th until the 12th October 2012 laid a stronger foundation for the relations between the two countries. In his visit, President Ivan Gašparovič and President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono mutually agreed in nine areas of priorities that have common benefits for cooperation focused on, namely: food security, energy renewable, trade and investment, banking, mass media and broadcasting, higher education, infrastructure and manufacturing, tourism, social and culture cooperation.
To enhance economic cooperation, the Coordinating Minister of Economy, Mr. Hatta Rajasa, visited Bratislava for attending the Business Round Table VI in the 11th until the 12th June 2012. He met with President Ivan Gašparovič and Minister of Economy, Ing. Tomáš Malatinský, MBA. He was awarded the degree of Doctor honoris causa from Agriculture University in Nitra for his contributions in the development of economy sector as well as agricultural field. On 10th December 2012, Minister of Economy, Ing. Tomáš Malatinský, MBA went to Indonesia for a working visit and met with his counterpart to discuss the possibility of opening SARIO; preparation of the 3rd joint commission; witnessing the 6 (six) signing of cooperation between the entrepreneurs from both countries.
Until present, Slovakia and Indonesia have reached agreements on various areas as follows:
- Agreement of the Protection and Enhancement of Investment, Jakarta, 12th July 1994;
- Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and the Protocol, Jakarta, 12th October 2000;
- Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Bilateral Consultation mechanism between the two Foreign Ministries, Bratislava, June 2002;
- The Agreement on Economic Cooperation, Jakarta, 2nd May 2006;
- Agreement on Economy Cooperation, Bratislava, June 2002 (renewed by Agreement on Economic Cooperation, Jakarta, May 2006);
- Protocol Agreement for Establishing the Joint Commission Meeting, Jakarta, 11th June 2007;
- MoU between SARIO and NAFED in the promotion and development of trade, Jakarta, 11th June 2007;
- MoU between the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia and the Ministry of the Republic of Slovakia on Technical Cooperation in the field of Agriculture, Bratislava, 18th January 2009;
- Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the Slovak Republic on Visa Exemption for Holders of Diplomatic Passports and Foreign Service Passports, Jakarta, 29th March 2010;
- Agreement on the Cooperation, Science, Education, Culture, Sports and Youth Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the Slovak Republic, Jakarta, 29th March 2010;
- Agreement between the Nuclear energy Regulatory Agency of the Republic of Indonesia and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Nuclear Safety, Jakarta, 11th October 2011;
At parliamentary level, the Indonesian parliament has conducted several visits to the Slovak National Parliament as follows:
- The members of People’s Consultative Assembly on 27th - 29th November 2012;
- The Friendship Bilateral Group (GKSB) delegation of the House of Representatives on 25th - 30th May 2014;
- The members of Committee II of the Regional Representative Council (DPD) on 13th until 16th December 2015;
- The Friendship Bilateral Group (GKSB) of the House of Representatives on 11th until 12th September 2017;
- The members of Commission I from House of Representatives on 24th until 25th April 2018.
Bilateral mechanisms to strengthen cooperation
During the visit of President Megawati Soekarnoputri to Slovakia in 2002, it was decided that bilateral mechanism should be established to discuss further ways and means to strengthen the cooperation. After intensive discussions between the two governments, they came to agreement to establish 3 (three) mechanisms that would cover the cooperation priorities areas as well as include all entities, namely:
- Bilateral Consultation Forum (BCF) - It is a biennial meeting at the level of Director General in charge in the Foreign Ministry to discuss bilateral and global political issues, to review the implementation of cooperation in various areas and to seek new initiatives. The meeting takes place alternatively in Indonesia and in Slovakia.
- Joint Commission Meeting (JCM) - It is a meeting, which include all the stakeholders from both countries governmental institutions, to discuss various topics relating to the cooperation between Indonesia and Slovakia. The meeting takes place alternatively in Indonesia and in Slovakia.
- Business Round Table Forum (BRT) - It is a forum intended for the business community of both countries to interact with each other to develop a network, to create business opportunities, and to work closely together to identify constructive and creative ways and to establish cooperation in various fields. Usually the convening of the BRT meeting is back to back with the convening of the JMC. The meeting takes place alternatively in Indonesia and in Slovakia.
Bilateral Consultation Forum (BCF)
1st BCF, Bratislava, Slovakia - 2006
The Meeting was held on the 12th April 2006 where Slovak delegation was led by Mr. Miroslav Lajčák, Director General of Political Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of the Slovak Republic and the Indonesian delegation was led by Mr. Eddy Hariyadhi, Director General for America and European Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia. This meeting was a follow up of the agreement between the two Foreign Ministers which was signed in 2002 in Bratislava. It was also to discuss ways and means to strengthen cooperation in the possible areas.
2nd BCF, Bali, Indonesia - 2007
It was held in Bali on 1st until 2nd March 2007 where the Indonesian delegation was chaired by the Director General of America and European Affairs , Mr. Eddi Hariyadhi and the Slovak delegation was led by the Director General of Political Affairs Mr. Miroslav Lajčák. Both delegations discussed several items: the extension of MoU of Bilateral Consultation Forum; the preparation of the state visit by the President of Slovakia Ivan Gašparovič; the preparation visit by the Slovak Minister for Foreign and European Affairs, Mr. Ján Kubiš, to Indonesia. On the economic sector, both sides touched upon the effort to organize the first JCM; the pending matters of draft MoU on Banking Arrangement; the draft MoU on the Promotion and Protection of the Investment.
3rd BCF, Bratislava, Slovakia - 2008
The meeting was organized on 6th February 2008 in Bratislava between the two Ministry of Foreign Affairs to discuss several pending draft MoU (Investment Guarantee Agreement/ IGA) and to sign the MoU on Technical Cooperation in the Field of Agriculture and the Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income in Jakarta, as well as to prepare the working visit of the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture to Slovakia, 18th until 19th January 2009.
4th BCF, Jakarta, Indonesia - 2015
It took place in Jakarta on 27th April 2015 where the Indonesian delegation was led by the Director General of America and European Affairs, Mr. Dian Triansyah Djani, and the Slovak delegation was led by Director General of Political Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, Mr. Ľubomir Rehák. They met to discuss the bilateral cooperation opportunities and the implementation of the last BCF and the third JCM in Bali on 2nd December 2013 as well as agreed to improve people-to-people contact. They also exchanged views on regional and international issues that became common interests such as ASEAN, the European Union, and the developments in Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. In addition, both parties also supported each other for nominations in various international organizations.
5th BCF, Bratislava, Slovakia - 2017
It was organized on 16th February 2017 where the Indonesian delegation was led by the Director General of America and European Affairs, Mr. Muhammad Anshor and the Slovak delegation was chaired by the Director General of Political Affairs, Mr. Peter Mišík. During the meeting, both sides discussed the latest developments taking place in both countries, a review of the implementation of bilateral cooperation and new initiatives to be undertaken, current developments in each region and multilateral issues. Both sides acknowledged to encourage bilateral trade and investment cooperation since it had not been yet reflected the potential of both countries. They also discussed the increased cooperation in the field of people-to-people contacts, dispatching the arts and cultural missions of each country and last but not least, to organize again the Interfaith Dialogue.
Joint Commission Meeting (JCM)
1st JCM, Jakarta, Indonesia - 2007
The first JCM was held in Jakarta from 11th until 12th June 2007 and it was initially began by the signing of a MoU between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia and the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic on behalf of their respective governments. For Indonesian side, it was signed by Director General of America and European Affairs, Mr. Eddi Hariyadhi, while the Slovak side was represented by Director General from the Ministry of Economy, Mr. Peter Žiga. There were working group sessions on economic, trade and investment cooperation as well on scientific technological and technical cooperation. On financial cooperation, they discussed the possibility for establishing lines of credit; bilateral investment protection and promotion Agreement; and Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation.
2nd JCM, Bratislava, Slovakia - 2010
It was organized in Bratislava from 29th until 30th April 2010 and on 27th until 28th April 2010. During the second JCM meeting, both sides negotiated various issues including renewal of the Agreement of the Protection and Enhancement of Investment to replace the previous one that was signed in 1994. The Indonesian delegation was led by the Director General of America and European Affairs, Madam Retno L.P. Marsudi, and the Slovak delegation was led by the Director General of Trade and Consumer Protection, Ministry of Economy of Slovakia, Madam Eva Szabová. During the meeting, both sides discussed further development of BRT; trade promotion; energy; agro-industry; defense industry; investment; banking; and cooperation in the field of science, education, culture, sport and youth.
3rd JCM, Bali; Indonesia - 2013
The third JCM was held on 2nd December 2013. At that event, the Indonesian delegation was led by the Director General of America and European Affairs, Mr. Dian Triansyah Djani, and the Slovak delegation led by the Director General of Foreign Trade of the Ministry of Economy of Slovakia, Mr. Štefan Rozkopal. The meeting discussed the development of bilateral relations and the follow up of the existing agreements as well as identifying potential bilateral economic cooperation in several key sectors; trade and investment, standardization; defense; small and medium enterprises; agricultural; forestry; environment; fishery; renewable energy; infrastructure; research and development; and socio-cultural and education.
Business Round Table (BRT)
- The first BRT was held in Bratislava, September 2009. It aimed to bring mutually beneficial cooperation between the two countries. Then the following BRT were held as follow :
I September 2009 Bratislava
II April 2010 Bratislava
III November 2010 Jakarta
IV February 2011 Bangka Belitung, South Sumatera and Jakarta
V October 2011 Jakarta
VI June 2012 Bratislava
VII December 2012 Jakarta
VIII December 2013 Denpasar, Bali
- It is worth to note, the 5th BRT held in Jakarta, October 2011, during the official visit of the Slovak President Ivan Gasparovic to Indonesia, had an important impetus for a stronger business relations of the two countries. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and President Gasparovic witnessed the signing of 15 MoU documents during the business forum. Among the MoUs signed, there were projects in Indonesia to build power plants in Batam and Lombok, to establish cement factories in Central Java and West Papua, and to set up a tire factory in Tangerang.
- On June 11th, 2012, the Indonesian Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs paid a courtesy call to President Ivan Gasparovic in Bratislava. The Indonesian minister’s visit to Slovakia was accompanied by the holding of the 6th Indonesian-Slovak Business Forum in Bratislava. The visit and the business forum were a concrete follow up of President Gasparovic visit to Indonesia in October 2011. As the results of the 6th BRT, Indonesian and Slovak business people signed USD 1, 2 billion investment contracts which intended to implement the commencement of the power plant, cement, and tyre factory projects in Indonesia.
- The 8th BRT in Bali, December 2013, was the last Indonesia-Slovakia business forum which was attended by 70 Indonesian and Slovak companies and businesses from different sectors and areas. Energy and infrastructure sectors are areas that have huge potential to be developed. The meeting was attended and opened by the Slovak Minister for Economy Tomas Malatinsky and also witnessed the signing of five bilateral investment documents amounting USD 850 million.
Five Investments Cooperation signed during the 8th Indonesian-Slovak Business Forum:
- Industrial Power Plant 60 MW (ethanol production) in Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia, between PT. Indowana Power of Indonesia and Istroenergo Group Levice of Slovakia;
- Power Plant 2x100 MW and 160 km of high voltage line 150 Kv in Angana, Kalimantan Timur Indonesia between PT. Indowana Power of Indonesia and Istroenergo Group Levice of Slovakia;
- Power Plant 2x25 MW in Karimun, Indonesia, between PT. Indowana Power of Indonesia and Istroenergo Group Levice of Slovakia;
- Maripi Integrated Cement Plant and 40 MW Power Plant in Manokwari, Indonesia, between PT. Gistec Prima of Indonesia and PIO Kerama Project Trencin of Slovakia;
- Cement Plant 1.73 million MT in Chiara, Banten, Indonesia, between PT. Triutama Dasa Indonesia and PIO Kerama Project Trencin of Slovakia;
In line with the foreign policy of Indonesia which was to promote interfaith dialogue between religious leaders and government officials to establish common understanding of various belief that exists in the world. Indonesia has established regularly bilateral Interfaith Dialogue and its related programs with different countries. In this regard, Slovakia is the 25th bilateral partner for Interfaith Dialogue with Indonesia.
The First Interfaith Dialogue Forum was convened in several cities in Slovakia on 27th until 31st October 2014. It was organized by Indonesia and Slovakia. The theme of the Forum was “Best Practice, Lesson Learnt and the Way Forward”. The Forum was to provide better understanding of the pluralistic society in Indonesia with different religions and traditions that could coexist and live in the harmony and tolerance. The Indonesian delegation consisted of religious leaders of Islam, Catholics, Christian, Buddha, Hindu and Confucian. They met and discussed with different Slovak religious leaders to reach common understanding. They also met with Slovak religious groups at Comenius University, held a public lecture at the University of St. Cyril & Methodius in Trnava and had a meeting with the Bratislava Cardinal and the leader of the Muslim community in Bratislava.
To further enhance common understanding of the Indonesia pluralistic society and living in harmony and tolerance, Mr. Pavol Demeš, the former Slovak Minister of International Relations, visited Indonesia on 12th until 21st April 2018. He met with various religious leaders, visited different worship houses and religious schools in Jakarta, Bandung and Yogya. He was also invited to make lectures in some universities on the current role of Slovakia in the European Union as well as in the global.
Indonesia and Slovakia have given priority to develop and strengthen their cooperation in the field of education since the signing of Cooperation Agreement on Science, Education, Culture, Sport and Youth signed in Jakarta, March 29, 2010. In this regard, several universities and science institution in Indonesia and Slovakia had signed MoU or LoI in promoting and enhancing cooperation in the field of education, science and research.
Date Indonesia Slovakia
2006-11 Universitas Indonesia Universitas Matej Bel
2010-12-13 Universitas Gunadarma Slovak University of Agriculture
2011-10-11 Universitas Andalas Slovak University of Agriculture
2012 Institut Teknologi Bandung Slovak Academy of Sciences
2012-05-21 Universitas Indonesia University of Economics in Bratislava
2014-04-01 Universitas Andalas Universitas Matej Bel
2014-10-30 UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Universitas SS Cyril and Methodius
2015-04-20 University of Gunadarma Pan European University
2016-03-21 Universitas Surabaya Pan European University
2016-06-02 Universitas Semarang University of Trnava
2016-10-22 Universitas Padang University of Trnava
2016-10-26 Universitas Atma Jaya Pan European University
2017 BATAN* in the framework of IAEA* Slovak Academy of Sciences
2017 Universitas Gadjah Mada University of Matej Bel
2017-01-12 Universitas Pancasila Pan European University
2018-04-30 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia Trnava University
2018-06-29 Institut Pertanian Bogor Slovak University of Agriculture
2018-06-29 Institut Pertanian Bogor Slovak Academy of Sciences
*BATAN: Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional (the National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia)
*IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency
As part of the cooperation on education between universities and to promote Indonesia to Slovakia students, Gunadarma University and Slovak University of Agriculture (SUA) established Indonesian corner at Faculty of Economy and Management of SUA in Nitra.
Furthermore, Indonesia has participated in many international events on education convened in Slovakia. In the year 2011, 18 Indonesian students/lecturers participated in international competitions and seminars in the field of math, chemistry, and environment. Recently, in July 2018, four Indonesian students won 1 gold medal, 1 silver medal and 2 bronze medals at the 50th International Chemistry Olympiad 2018 which was held in Bratislava, Slovakia and Prague, Czech.
To further promote friendship and better understanding and humanity around the globe through education, culture and arts, the Indonesian government has provided two kinds of scholarships namely Darmasiswa from Ministry of Education and Culture, and Indonesian Arts and Culture Scholarship from Ministry of Foreign Affairs. These scholarships contribute significantly for promoting people to people contact and strengthen bilateral relations, and give in-depth knowledge about Indonesia in many aspects.
It is a scholarship program that provides to all foreign students from countries which have diplomatic relationship with Indonesia to study Bahasa, art and culture at selected universities located in different cities in Indonesia. This program is organized by the Ministry of Education and Culture in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The main purpose of the Darmasiswa program is to promote and increase the interest in the language and culture of Indonesia among the youth of other countries. It has also been designed to provide stronger cultural links and understanding among participating countries. Currently, the alumni of Darmasiswa from Slovakia are 206 people (year 2000-2017), and in year 2018, about 34 people from Slovakia were accepted by this program. The embassy also provides Indonesian language course for Darmasiswa students before they study in Indonesia.
Indonesian Arts and Culture Scholarship
The objective of this program is to encourage better understanding amongst participants from member countries through Indonesia’s immensely diverse arts and cultural heritage. Moreover, the aim of the program is to cultivate a culture of cooperation, emerging from direct contact and sharing of cultures amongst people involved in the program, leading to thriving diplomatic relations in the region and worldwide. So far, the alumni of IACS from Slovakia are 3 (three) people due to limited seat for each country.
Art and Culture
The Embassy of Indonesia often organizes cultural art and culture activities in collaboration with various partners in Slovakia. Every year, the Embassy joins a cultural summer festival organized by BKIS. Indonesia also participates in various international festivals held in Slovakia such as choir festivals, folksklore festivals, radio program festivals, world illustration festivals, film festival, etc, and some of them recieved awards.
Some achievements by Indonesian teams such as:
- International Festival Choirs and Orchestras “Bratislava Cantat I, 21-24 November 2015
- International Festival on Sustainable Development Film, 4 May 2018
To promote cooperation in the field of music of two countries, on 13 May 2014, the Indonesia Embassy and Duša Fujary signed MoU to promote cultural heritage of angklung and fujara. Angklung and Fujara are traditional music instruments which is registered in UNESCO as Masterpiece of Oral and Intagible Heritage of Humanity.
Furthermore, the Embassy also has established an art and culture group namely Smara Gita Art Community Dance Group, Rindik Group and Angklung group. These groups have performed in various cultural events in Slovakia. The members of these groups are not only Indonesian but also Slovak people.
Indonesia also contributes to make the city of Bratislava become more vibrant by initiating and organizing the event named “Asian Weekend” which was held in 27-28 July 2018 together with BKIS and five other Asian countries (Cina, India, Japan, Korea and Viet Nam).
Indonesian cuisine is demonstrated through various festivals, bazaar and also in culinary programs on TV stations or restaurants in Slovakia. Indonesian fried rice or nasi goreng, chicken satay with peanut sauce, fried noodles or mie goreng, and beef ‘rendang’ are popular dishes in Slovakia. At present, there are 3 (three) restaurants that serves Indonesian cuisine, including Makan Restaurant in Bratislava, Yusuf Kitchen in Povaska Brystisca, and Enak Restaurant in Trnava.
In the field of media, Indonesia and Slovakia signed MoU on Public Service Broadcasting of Radio Republic Indonesia (RRI) and Radio Television of Slovakia (RTVS) on the 11th October 2011. Under this MoU, these two institutions will cooperate on exchange of radio program and news or participate on radio program festival organized by RRI/TVRS. In this regard, RRI participated at International Competition of Folks Music Recording, 15-17 April 2015.
Indonesia and Slovakia also signed the Agreement on the Cooperation in the Exchange of News Materials between Antara News Agency of the Republic of Indonesia and TASR News Agency of the Slovak Republic which was signed on 13th December 2011. The objective of this agreement was to cover cooperation on the exchange of news materials including news reports, news features, photographs, and video materials.
Furthermore, to update information about Indonesia, on 22nd March 2018 the Embassy of Indonesia organized a gathering with media people under the program “Indonesian Update” and introducing Indonesian cuisine as well.
As part of the implementation of the Agreement on Science, Education, Culture, Sport and Youth signed in Jakarta, March 29th 2010, the Embassy of Indonesia cooperated with the Ministry of Youth and Sport of the Republic Indonesia and organized a sepak takraw exhibition to communities in Slovak in December 2017.
Three years before, on the 5th November 2014, the International Pencak Silat Federation (Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antar Bangsa-Persilat) endorsed the Slovakia Pencak Silat Federation as “The Junior Member” and has been recognized as the sole representative body of the International Pencak Silat Federation in Slovakia.
Team Indonesia achieved awards at some sports international events in Slovakia. On 23rd-24th May 2012, Indonesian national athlete won 7 gold medals for International Paralympic Table Tennis in Bratislava. On 12-17 May 2015, a gold medal was also won at a table tennis competition at Palma Slovakia Open.
As the main pillars of economic strategy, Indonesia through its diplomatic missions have the effort to intensively promote Indonesian tourism in the respective host countries. In Slovakia, the promotion activities have been actively conducted by the Indonesian Embassy in Bratislava.
In order to promote tourism, the Embassy of Indonesia uses various tools of soft diplomacy which is mostly supported by the Ministry of Tourism as well as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The activities conducted include presentations, cultural events, participation to fairs and exhibitions, familiarization trips, business matching amongst tour operators, and scholarship programs on Indonesian arts and culture.
The engagement with the private sector has been also conducted through business matching amongst tour operators from Indonesia and Slovakia as well as familiarization trips with Slovak travel agents and journalists. These promotional activities are initiated by the Embassy to promote Indonesia as an attractive tourism destination to the Slovak community. The private sector’s involvement in establishing new partnerships and working relations with Slovak counterparts and stakeholders in tourism has a positive impact to contribute to the development of the Indonesia tourism industry.
To attract more visitors from Slovakia, Indonesia decided to make visa bureaucracy easier. As of 2016, Slovakia has been one of the 169 countries that have been granted a-visa-free policy for 30 days. The dropping of visa requirements can be considered as an attempt to minimize the bureaucratic burden in the tourism sector and significantly boost the number of travelling people.
The result of the continuous efforts by the Embassy to promote Indonesian tourism and the visa-free policy might be reflected by the growing number of tourists from Slovakia. In 2017, the number of tourists was around 8.368 people increased by 164% percent within 5 years (see the data below).
Year | Number of Tourists
2017 | 8.368 people
2016 | 6.629 people
2015 | 5.331 people
2014 | 3.888 people
2013 | 3.518 people
2012 | 3.165 people
Economic and Development Relations
Slovakia is Indonesia’s fourth largest economic partner in central Europe. For Indonesia, Slovakia serves as “gateway to Europe”, with its strategic location in the heart of Europe which brings potential access to 600 million consumers in the region.
On the other hand, Slovakia also sees Indonesia not only as bilateral partner but also as its hub to Southeast Asia region (ASEAN), a region that has a combined gross domestic product of USD 2.6 trillion and a fast growing market covering over 630 million consumers. As a prominent country in ASEAN, Indonesia also offers interesting business opportunities in a wide variety of areas, including agriculture and food, energy, transport and logistics. Recognizing that both Indonesia and Slovakia are continuously developing, it brings more potential for trade and investment between the two countries.
After establishment of diplomatic relations in January 1993, Indonesia and Slovakia seized the momentum and foundation to further develop the economic cooperation by signing the Agreement on the Promotion of Investments in July 1994. This was followed by signing of the Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation in October 2000.
To further expand and strengthen trade and economic relations, Indonesia and Slovakia governments signed a Trade Agreement in June 2002, during the visit of the Indonesian President Megawati Soekarnoputri to Slovakia. The Trade Agreement entered into force after the Indonesian President issued Presidential Decree No. 7 in January 2003.
Furthermore, during the visit of President Gasparovic to Indonesia in October 2011, twenty Slovak entrepreneurs and representatives of the Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry met their Indonesian partners at the 5th Business Forum in Jakarta. Slovak businesses offered their capabilities in construction of power plants, high-voltage distribution stations, power distribution networks, transformer stations, and farming. Other potential cooperation offered by the Slovaks were in nuclear energy, military technology, and building water treatment facilities. Indonesian businesses welcomed the Slovak’s offers and explored other potential cooperation in economy, agriculture, food safety, and tourism.
In order to further promote economic relations, trade and businesses, the Indonesian Embassy has facilitated programs to intensify interactions among Indonesian and Slovak business people. The Indonesian Embassy has been working closely with Slovak Investment and Trade Development Agency (SARIO), Slovak Business Agency (SBA), Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and the Slovak-Indonesian Chamber of Commerce (SIOK) in promoting trade, investment, businesses, as well as tourism and culture.
The Embassy has facilitated several visits of Indonesian groups to Slovakia in order to explore and seize business potentials, particularly in energy, trade, education, and tourism. Indonesian Specialty Coffee Association participated at ITF Slovakiatour 2018 and it held an event of the “Indonesian Coffee Experience”, gaining appreciation from Slovak coffee people. The Embassy has also facilitated meetings between Indonesian distributors in Europe as well as Slovak distributors and shops.
A seminar and info session to promote business in Indonesia was also held in Bratislava on 24th April 2018 as a collaboration of EU-Indonesia Business Network, Slovak SBA, SARIO, and the Indonesian Embassy.
In order to achieve self-sufficiency in food and less dependent on import particularly wheat, Indonesia and Slovakia had a collaborative project for developing tropical wheat seed which can grow in Indonesia. In this regard, University of Andalas and Slovak University of Agriculture (SUA) in cooperation with OSIVO signed MOU for joint research to develop tropical wheat seed in Bratislava on 31 March 2011.
The project took place in the University of Andalas in Padang, Indonesia which involved various experts/students, the National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, and Balitbiogen. The tests of planting had been conducted over 10 areas in 5 cities surrounding the city of Padang, West Sumatera (Solok, Solok Selatan, Agam, Tanah Datar, Padang Panjang, and Bukit Tinggi).
At present, the successful outcome of the research is the process of commercialization in Indonesia. This cooperation is a showcase of successful cooperation between Indonesian and Slovak universities.
Indonesia-Slovak bilateral trade reached euro 156,66 million in 2017, whereas Indonesia exports is Euro 146,60 million and imports is Euro 10,06 million. Slightly increased from the total trade amount of Euro 151, 80 million in 2016, with exports of Euro 141,38 million and imports of Euro 10,419 million. The current trade figure expanded tenfold since the establishment of diplomatic relations.
However, the numbers do not reflect the economic potential of the two countries and the economic ties are still underdone. Slovakia remains a very potential non-traditional market for high-quality Indonesian products and commodities, such as automotive parts, paper and paper products, textiles, and also coffee, tea, and cocoa, while Indonesia has huge potential for Slovak’s high-end equipment and products.
In the beginning of the trade relations, the biggest shares of Indonesia’s exports to Slovakia were natural commodities, such as rubber and raw tin, footwear, and footwear parts. Today’s Indonesia’s exports to Slovakia are predominantly electrical equipment and parts, followed by rubber and footwear parts, which shows that Indonesia mainly supplys for Slovak’s electrical and manufacturing industries.
While also in the past, Indonesia’s main imports from Slovakia were Irons (cold-rolled, hot-rolled, pipes), ammunition, and chemicals. Today, Indonesia mainly imports manufacturing machineries, ammunition, cars, and medical instruments.
InvestmentCurrently, there are still large untapped investment potentials between both Indonesia and Slovakia that needs to be addressed. There are already some Slovak’s investments in hotels and resorts in Seminyak, Bali while some Slovak business people are also exploring to start doing business in Indonesia.
Slovak – Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Realizing the importance to further the interests of businesses, the Slovak-Indonesian Chamber of Commerce (SIOK) was established in July 2008, initiated by Mr. Milan Compel and supported by Indonesian Embassy. The office of SIOK is located in Bratislava, Slovakia. Its objective is to support in enhancing business relations between Indonesia and Slovakia. SIOK has organized meetings, seminars, and business visits, including the annual biggest trade event Trade Expo Indonesia.
While the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kamar Dagang dan Industri/KADIN) has the Visegard Committee to promote and conduct business activities between Indonesia business people and its Slovak, the Czech Republic, Hungarian, and Polish business partners. At present, the Chairman of the Committee is Mr. Sulaiman Saleh. With its 34 regional chambers and 514 district branches, Indonesian KADIN works continuously to tap potential cooperation in trade, industry and services with the foreign businesses, including Slovak businesses for mutual benefits.