Jamaica

​​  

A.  DESCRIPTION

Name of the country:Jamaica
Capital :Kingston
Government type:Constitutional Parliamentary Democracy and a Commonwealth Realm
Chief of State :Queen Elizabeth II
Deputy Chief of State:Governor General, Sir. Patrick Linton Allen (since 26 February, 2009)
Head of Government  :The Most Honorable Andrew Holness, ON, MP
Prime Minister 
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade  :Senator Honorable Kamina Elizabeth Johnson Smith 
National Holiday :Independence Day 6, August, 1962
Geographical location:Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba
Total Area:10.991 Km2
Provinces/Department:14 wilayah/parishes: Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland (CIA Fact Book)
Climate:Tropical all year
Total Population:2,721,252 (est 2013, World Bank)
Population Growth:0% (est 2014, World Bank)
National Language :English
Ethnical Groups:black 92.1%, mixed 6.1%, East Indian 0.8%, other 0.4%, unspecified 0.7% (est 2011, CIA Fact Book.)
Religions:Protestant (Seventh-Day Adventist; Pentecostal; Other Church of God; Baptist; New Testament Church of God; Church of God in Jamaica; Church of God of Prophecy; Anglican) and Roman Catholic
Economy  
Currency :Jamaican Dollar (1USD =114.96 JMD) (April , 2015)
GDP (PPP Current International):USD 24.14 billion (est 2013, World Bank)
GDP Growth:1.2 % (est 2013, World Bank)
GDP Perkapita (PPP Current International:USD8,892 (est. 2013, World Bank)
GDP Composition by Sector:Agriculture: 6.9% ; Industry: 20,5% ; Service: 72,6% (est 2013, World Bank)
Industrial products :tourism, bauxite/alumina, agro processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products, telecommunications
Agricultural products :sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, yams, ackees, vegetables; poultry, goats, milk; shellfish
Total Export:US$1,497 billion (est 2014, CIA Fact Book)
Total Import:US$5,153 billion (est 2014, CIA Fact Book)
Export commodities :alumina, bauxite, sugar, rum, coffee, yams, beverages, chemicals, wearing apparel, mineral fuels
Import commodities:food and other consumer goods, industrial supplies, fuel, parts and accessories of capital goods, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials
Export partners :USA, Canada, Netherland, UK, Russian Federation, Iceland, Slovenia, France, China, Venezuela (SIJ, 2014)
Import Partners :USA, Venezuela, Trinidad dan Tobago, China, Mexico, Japan, Canada (SIJ, 2014)
Natural Resources:bauxite, gypsum, limestone (CIA Fact Book)
Entries:Discovery Bay (Port Rhoades), Kingston, Montego Bay, Port Antonio, Port Esquivel, Port Kaiser, Rocky Point (CIA Fact Book)

 *Statistical Institute of Jamaica

B. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT

1.    Jamaica's last election was won by the People's National Party (PNP) which defeated Jamaica Labour Party (JLP). The PNP appointed Portia Simpson Miller as Prime Minister on 5 January, 2012. From a legislative point of view, the PNP has received widespread support from Jamaican society as reflected in the composition of the Parliament of Jamaica where PNP members get 41 out of the 63 seats. Prime Minister Simpson Miller appointed Arnold Nicholson, as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade.

2.    Prime Minister Simpson Miller's main policy is to improve economic conditions in the country by implementing market-friendly policies to reduce unemployment (12.8% in 2011) and crime rate (22% in 2010) which is quite high. Something similar is reflected in Jamaica's foreign policy which focuses on combating illegal drugs and strengthens economic ties with the United States as one of the major trade partners.

3.    At a regional level, Jamaica has an interest of strengthening integration in the Caribbean region. Currently, Jamaica is a member of several international organizations such as the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), the Organization of the American States (OAS), the African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP) and Petrocaribe.

4.    In a multilateral context, Jamaica is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Group of 77 + China.

C. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

1.    Jamaica has potential for a large economy mainly because of its geographical proximity to the United States and the Panama Canal. Some of the Jamaica's main assets include materials such as aluminum, bauxite mines, sugar cane and banana production in the agricultural field and also its status as a Caribbean touristic destination; although the latter has not been exploited enough to turn Jamaica into a developed State of the Caribbean region.

2.    According to the World Bank, the real economic growth rate of Jamaica's GDP per capita during the last 30 years has been 1%, which makes Jamaica one of the developing countries with the slowest economic growth in the world. Even though Kingston's seaport is one of the major seaports of the Caribbean and Latin America, in reality Jamaican economy experiences slow economic growth, high public debt and it is vulnerable to external shocks. The debt to GDP ratio has reached more than 100% since 2001 and in 2012 it reached 140%. Thus, interest payments on the debt became the largest component of the government spending and as a result, the government could not make investments or carry out economic development programs.

3.    In early 2010 and in order to overcome the high government debt, the Government of Jamaica launched the Jamaica Debt Exchange (JDX) Program to restructure its domestic debt and to establish cooperation with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) related to a loan of USD 1.27 billion for economic recovery. However, this cooperation was halted due to objections of the IMF on the Jamaican Government policy to pay the difference in salaries for government employees that were halted in the agreement between the IMF-Government of Jamaica.

4.    Since January 2012, the government of the Prime Minister Portia Simpson Miller has focused on economic reforms i.e. to create economic stability, to reduce debt, and to create economic growth and economic security (resilience). Simpson has also conducted negotiations with the IMF to regain financial aid. These negotiations resulted in an Extended Fund Facility (EFF) Arrangement with the IMF for 4 years (1 May 2013 -30 April 2017) and by a total value of USD 932 million aid. To complete the aid package from the IMF, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) has allocated USD 510 million to the Jamaica Government. Other financial institutions such as the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) support the development of Jamaica's private sector.

5.    Having experienced negative economic growth during the 3 years of the global economic crisis from 2008 to 2010, multilateral financial institutions such as the IMF have pushed Jamaica to achieve positive economic growth e.g. 1.7% (2011), 0.72% (2012), 1.27% (2013) and 1.1% (2014).

D. RELATIONSHIP INDONESIA – JAMAICA

I.          POLITICAL 

1.     Indonesia and Jamaica started its diplomatic relations on 17 December, 1981 with the signing of a Joint Communiqué opening diplomatic relations at Embassy level. According to the Minister of Foreign Affairs' Decree No. SK.06 / A / OT / VI / 2004/01 dated June 1, 2004, Jamaica was administratively included in the accreditation of the Indonesian Embassy in Havana. Thus, Indonesian Ambassador to Jamaica is based in Havana. Current Indonesian Ambassador accredited to Jamaica is H.E. Mr. Teiseran Foun Cornelis. Ambassador Cornelis is assisted by an Honorary Consul based in Kingston who helps to carry out the joint activities.  Meanwhile, H.E. Claudia Cecile Barnes is the Jamaican Ambassador to Indonesia although she is based in Tokyo.

2. The diplomatic relations between Jamaica and Indonesia have been characterized by mutual support at the UN Human Rights Council, the World Heritage Committee (WHC), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), UNESCO, the Universal Postal Union (UPU), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and at the International Organization for Standardization Council. Both countries are non-permanent members of the UN Security Council and members of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 + China.

3. To strengthen the bilateral relations between the two countries, Indonesia and Jamaica have agreed to hold several Joint Commissions (September 23, 1996; March 31 - April 1, 2003, Kingston and 27-28 November, 2007, Jakarta.) 

II.        ECONOMIC

1.    The total value of trade between Indonesia and Jamaica showed a significant increase during a period of 3 years from USD 11.95 million to $ 17.71 million. Where the value of Indonesia's exports increased from USD 11.02 million to USD 15.43 million. Indonesia's main export products to Jamaica during the 2012-2014 period include palm oil products, spices, soap products and furniture products. While Indonesia's main import products from Jamaica include iron, aluminum waste, paper products, and car parts.

2.    For the ongoing period of January-April 2015, total bilateral trade amounted US$ 4.8 million, or decreased around 14% compare to the same period of 2014 which amounted US$ 5.6 million. Notwithstanding, Indonesia still record a trade surplus amounted US$ 4.2 million ( Export: US$ 4.5 million and Import: US$ 300 thousand).

TRADE BALANCE

Indonesia – Jamaica

2010-2015

(Value: Thousand USD)

Description20102011201220132014Trend(%) 2010-2014Jan-AprChange(%) 2015/2014
20142015
TOTAL TRADE9.463,213.402,911.957,917.386,117.709,116,345.601,74.817,4-14,00
OIL  & GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,00,00,00
NON OIL & GAS9.463,213.402,911.957,917.386,117.709,116,345.601,74.817,4-14,00
EXPORT8.962,311.939,711.026,716.879,815.434,515,415.294,44.496,3-15,07
OIL  & GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,00,00,00
NON OIL & GAS8.962,311.939,711.026,716.879,815.434,515,415.294,44.496,3-15,07
IMPORT501,01.463,2931,2506,32.274,621,71307,3321,24,52
OIL  & GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,00,00,00
NON OIL & GAS501,01.463,2931,2506,32.274,621,71307,3321,24,52
TRADE BALANCE8.461,310.476,510.095,516.373,513.160,014,224.987,24.175,1-16,28
OIL  & GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,00,00,00
NON OIL & GAS8.461,310.476,510.095,516.373,513.160,014,224.987,24.175,1-16,28

​Source: Trade Ministry

III. SOCIAL-CULTURAL

Bilateral relations between Indonesia and Jamaica in the social -cultural field have not been guided by a Cultural Agreement. During this time, relations between the two countries have been mostly carried out through the provision of humanitarian aid from Indonesia to Jamaica given the fact the latter is one of the most vulnerable countries to hurricanes in the region. 

E. COMPOSITION OF THE CABINET

JAMAICA

 

E. COMPOSITION OF THE CABINET

JAMAICA

I.              CABINET MINISTERS

Prime Minister
Minister of Defence 
Minister of Economic Growth and Job Creation 
(since  3 March,  2016)
:The Most Honorable Andrew Holness, ON, MP 
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade:Senator Honourable Kamina Elizabeth Johnson Smith (since 2016)
Minister without Portfolio, Office of the Prime Minister :Honorable Dr. Horace Anthony Chang, MP
Minister without Portfolio, Office of the Prime Minister:Honorable Dr. Daryl Wesley Phillip Vaz, MP
Minister without Portfolio, Office of the Prime Minister:Honorable Derrick Smith, CD, MP
Attorney General :Mrs. Marlene Patricia Malahoo Forte, MP
Minister of Education, Youth and Information  :Senator Honorable Ruel Bankroft Reid, CD
Minister of Finance and  Public Service:Honourable Audley Fitz –Albert Shaw, CD, MP
Minister of Health:Dr. Honorable Christopher Charles Tufton, MP
Minister of Industry, Commerce and Agriculture :Honorable Karl Samuda , CD, MP
Minister without Portfolio, Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Agriculture:Honorable William James Charles Hutchinson, MP
Minister of Justice:Honorable Delroy Aubyn Chuck , MP
Minister of Labour and Social Security:Honorable Shahine Elizabeth Robinson, MP
Minister of Energy, Science and Technology :Dr. Honorable Andrew O'Brian Wheatley, MP
Minister of National Security :Honorable Robert Montague, MP
Minister of Tourism :Honorable Edmund Curtis Bartlett, CD, MP
Minister of Transport and Mining :Honorable Lester Michael​ Henry, CD, MP
Minister of Culture, Gender Affairs, Entertainment and Sports :Honorable Olivia Atavia Grange, CD, MP
Minister of Local Government :Honorable Desmond McKenzie, CD, MP

 

II.            STATE  MINISTERS

Minister of State, Ministry of Finance and Public Services :Honorable Fayval Williams, MP
Minister of State, Ministry of National Security :Senator Honorable Pearnel Charles Jr.
Minister of State, Ministry of Education, Youth and Information :Honorable Floyd Green, MP
Minister of State, Ministry of Finance and Public Services :Honorable Rudyard Spencer, CD, MP

 

Attorney General:Mrs. Marlene Patricia Malahoo Forte, MP

​ 

 

 As of April , 2016