Tanzania

peta tanzania bener.jpg


I. COUNTRY PROFILE

Official Name

:

United Republic of Tanzania

Capital City

:

Dodoma

President

:

John Pombe Magufuli (25 October 2015)

Prime Minister

:

Majaliwa Kassim Majaliwa (November 2015)

Minister of Foreign Affairs , East African, Regional and International Cooperation

:

Augustine Philip Mahiga (November 2015)

Location

:

Tanzania is located in Eastern Africa and lies between latitudes 5.6944° South, and longitudes 36.3223°

Border

:

Land borders:

North: Kenya and Uganda

South: Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique

West: Rwanda, Burundi, and Democratic Republic of Congo

Ocean border: Uni Comoros​

Area

:

947.300 km2 

Climate

:

Tropical

Population

:

47.67 million (est. 2015 IMF)

46.74 million (2014 IMF)​

Form of State

:

Republic

National Day

:

26 April (union day of Tanganyika and  Zanzibar)

National Anthem


:

Mungu Ibariki Afrika (God Bless Africa)

Ethnic Group

:

Mainland: Africaa 99% (more than 120 tribes), 1% (Asia, Eropean, dan Arabian)

 

 Zanzibar: 75% Arabian, 15% (Africa and Arabian-African)

Religion

:

35% Traditional Belief

35 % Moslem

30% Christian

Zanzibar :  99% Moslem

Official Language

:

English (official), Swahili (official and national language)

Currency

:

Tanzanian Shilling (TZs) (1 US$ = 2.000 TZS)

Main Export Commodity

:

Gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton

Main Import Commodity

:

Consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil


A.   HISTORY

Tanzania was formed from the union of the mainland territory of Tanganyika dan the coastal archipelago of Zanzibar. From 1880s to 1919, Tanganyika was a colony and part of German East Africa, and became a British mandate under the League of Nations. The status is kept until its independence in 1961. Zanzibar was settled as a trading hub, controlled by the Portuguese in 1498. In 1699, it was controlled by the Sultanate of Oman. In 1840, Omani Sultan, Seyyid Said, moved his capital to Zanzibar.

 

On December 1962, Tanganyika became a democratic republic under an executive president. Zanzibar overthrew the Arab dynasty and become independent in 1963. The mainland and archipelago merged on 26 April 1064 and renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.

 

B.   GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS ​

1.    Government

  1. Legislative

    The parliament consists of National Assembly of Tanzania (Bunge) and Zanzibar House of Representatives.

    National Assembly of Tanzania has 295 members which include the Attorney General, 5 elected from the Zanzibar House of Representative to participate in the Parliament, special women's seats (made up of 20% of the seats a particular party has in the house), 181 constituent members of Parliament from the mainland, and 50 from Zanzibar.

    Zanzibar's House of Representatives has 81 members with jurisdiction over all non-union matters and allowed to make laws for Zanzibar without the approval of the union government as long as it does not involve union-designated matters.

  2. Executive

    President of Tanzania is elected by direct popular vote for 5 year terms.  The president appoints a prime minister who serves as the government's leader in the National Assembly. The president selects his cabinet from among National Assembly members. The Constitution also empowers him to nominate 10 non-elected members of Parliament, who also are eligible to become cabinet members.
     
  3. Judiciary

    Tanzania has a five-level judiciary combining the jurisdictions of tribal, Islamic, and British common law. Appeal is from the primary courts through the district courts, resident magistrate courts, to the high courts, and Court of Appeals.

Judges are appointed by the Chief Justice, except those for the Court of Appeals and the High Court who are appointed by the president. The Zanzibar court system parallels the legal system of the union, and all cases tried in Zanzibar courts, except for those involving constitutional issues and Islamic law, can be appealed to the Court of Appeals of the union. A commercial court was established in September 1999 as a division of the High Court.

 

2.    Region

Tanzania is divided into 26 regions (mikoa), 21 on the mainland and 5 in Zanzibar (three on Unguja, two on Pemba) and 99 districts (wilaya). the 26 regions are Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West. ​

3.    Political party

Tanzania adopts multiparty system with 22 political parties registered. In 31th   October 2010 general election, six parties took part as follows:

  • Party of Democracy and Development (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo )
  • Revolutionary Party (Chama Cha Mapinduzi)
  • Democratic Party
  • National Convention for Construction and Reform  (Mageuzi)
  • Tanzania  Labor Party
  • United Democratic Party

BILATERAL RELATIONS

POLITICS

Indonesia and Tanzania have a long history of good relations. Indonesia opens its diplomatic representative in Dar es Salaam since 1964. Meanwhile, Tanzania's interests in Indonesia are accredited from its High Commission in Kuala Lumpur.

The founding fathers of the two countries, President Soekarno and President Julius K. Nyerere are both architecting the Non Aligned Movement. The cordial relations are further strengthened by the exchange of visit of head of states from both sides, among others:​

  • The visit of President Julius K. Nyerere to Indonesia, 8 October 1981;
  • The visit of President Ali Hassan Mwinyi to Indonesia, 3 March 1987;
  • The visit of President Soeharto to Dar es Salaam, 5 December 1991;

 

TRADE AND ECONOMICS      

In the sector of economy, the bilateral cooperation is emphasized on agriculture. Indonesia established  Farmer's Agriculture and Rural Training Centre (FARTC) in Mkindo, Morogoro, Tanzania in 1996 Indonesia, where Indonesian agriculture experts provides training for Tanzanian farmers.

In 2004, both sides have signed MoU on the Establishment of a Joint Commission for Bilateral Cooperation.the joint commission, known as Indonesia-Tanzania Joint Agriculture Cooperation Committee (JACC), served as a vehicle to improve agricultural sector co-operations, such as capacity building through training, joint research, and the expansion of market access to agricultural products.

The level of current economic trade between the two countries has not reflected its true potentials. The total bilateral trade volume is still considerably small and mostly conducted through third parties. Indonesia main export commodities to Tanzania are garment, soap, instant noodles, stationery, furniture and apparel, while Indonesia imports cotton, peanut, fruits and other agricultural products from Tanzania.​

SOCIO-CULTURAL

The two countries have been developing the bilateral socio-cultural cooperation, especially in education and training, particularly under the South-South Cooperation scheme. Indonesia has provided training programs for agriculture, fisheries and information technology for the government officials and academicians. Every year, the Indonesian government also offers Dharmasiswa and Developing Countries Partnership Program scholarship for Tanzanian students to participate.