Comoros

​                                                                                      COUNTRY PROFILE


      
General Information

 

General information about:

 

Official Name                                             :    Union of the Comoros

Government                                               :    Presidential Republic

Capital City                                                 :    Moroni

Area                                                            :    2,034 km2

Population                                                   :    823 thousand (est 2016, IMF)

National Anthem                                         :    Udzima wa ya Masiwa

Religion                                                       :    Moslem 98%, Catholic 2%

Language                                                    :    Shikomoro, Arabic, French,  

Currency                                                    :    Comoros Franc (KMF) 1 US$ = 450 BIF

National Day                                               :    6 July (independence day)    

Ethnic group                                               :    Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

President                                                    :    Azali Assoumani

Minister of Foreign Affairs                          :    Mohamed Bacar Dossar

Comoros Ambassador for Indonesia         :    Mahmoud M.Aboud (accredited in Beijing)

Indonesian Ambassador for Comoros       :    Zakaria Anshar, accredited in Dar es Salaam (since 2013)

GDP                                                           :    0,609 billion (est 2016, IMF)

GDP per capita                                          :    739,132 (est 2016, IMF)

Major export commodity                            :    Vanilla, cloves, copra, ylang-ylang (perfume essence)

Major import commodity                            :    Rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, cement, transport equipment

Membership in International Organization :    ACP, AfDB, AMF, AOSIS, AU, CAEU (candidates), COMESA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

 

Flag

The current flag of the Union of the Comoros was designed in 2001 and officially adopted on January 7, 2002. The design consists of a white crescent with four white five-pointed stars inside of a green triangle. The flag has four stripes, representing four islands of the nation: yellow is for Mohéli, white is for Mayotte (claimed by Comoros but administered by France), red is for Anjouan, and blue is for Grande Comore. The four stars on the flag also symbolize the four islands of the Comoros. The star and crescent symbol stands for Islam, which is the nation's major religion

 

Etymology

The name "Comoros" derives from the Arabic word qamar ("moon"). Portuguese explorers first visited Comoros in 1505 and the islands provided provisions to the Portuguese fort at Mozambique throughout the 16th century. In 1793, Malagasy warriors from Madagascar first started raiding the islands for slaves. The first French colonists landed in Mayotte, and Andrian Tsouli, the Malagasy King of Mayotte, signed the Treaty of April 1841, which ceded Comoros to the French authorities. Agreement was reached with France in 1973 for Comoros to become independent in 1978. On 6 July 1975, the Comorian parliament passed a unilateral resolution declaring independence. Ahmed Abdallah proclaimed the independence of the Comorian State and became its first president.

 

Geography

Union of the Comoros is located in Eastern Africa and lies between 12° South Latitude and 44° East Longitude.  At 2,034 km2 (785 sq mi), it is one of the smallest countries in the world. The Comoros also has claim to 320 km2 (120 sq mi) of territorial seas. The interiors of the islands vary from steep mountains to low hills.

 

The Comoros is formed by Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Mwali (Mohéli) and Nzwani (Anjouan), three major islands in the Comoros Archipelago, as well as many minor islets. The capital and largest city, Moroni, is located on Ngazidja. The archipelago is situated in the Indian Ocean, in the Mozambique Channel, between the African coast (nearest to Mozambique and Tanzania) and Madagascar, with no land borders. The islands of the Comoros Archipelago were formed by volcanic activity. Mount Karthala, an active shield volcano located on Ngazidja, is the country's highest point, at 2,361 m or 7,748 ft (2,362 m).

 

The climate is generally tropical and mild, with temperature reaches an average of 29–30 °C (84–86 °F) in March, the hottest and an average low of 19 °C (66 °F) in the cool, dry season (kusi (meaning south monsoon), which proceeds from May to November.

 

Comoros is bordered by Madagascar, Mozambique, Seychelles, Tanzania and Mayotte.

 

Comoros' population is a mélange of Arabs, Persians, Indonesians, Africans, and Indians, and the much smaller number of Europeans that settled on the islands between the 8th and 19th centuries, when they served as a regional trade hub. The Arab and Persian influence is most evident in the islands' overwhelmingly Muslim majority – about 98% of Comorians are Sunni Muslims. The country is densely populated, averaging nearly 350 people per square mile, although this varies widely among the islands, with Anjouan being the most densely populated.

 

Given the large share of land dedicated to agriculture and Comoros' growing population, habitable land is becoming increasingly crowded. The combination of increasing population pressure on limited land and resources, widespread poverty, and poor job prospects motivates thousands of Comorians each year to migrate. At least 150,000 to 200,000 people of Comorian citizenship or descent live abroad, mainly in France, where they have gone seeking a better quality of life, job opportunities, higher education (Comoros has no universities), advanced health care. Remittances from the diaspora are an economic mainstay, representing approximately 25% of Comoros' GDP and significantly more than the value of its exports of goods and services (only 15% of GDP).

 

Politics

1.    Government

  1.  Legislative

    The legislative branch consists of a Unicameral Assembly of the Union comprising of 33 seats.

     
  2. Executive

    The executive branch consists of the President of the Union of Comoros and Council of Ministers of the Cabinet appointed by the President. The presidency rotates every four years among the elected presidents from the three main islands; Grand Comore, Anjouan and Moheli.

     
  3. Judiciary

    The legal system incorporates French and Islamic law in a new consolidated code. Most disputes are settled by village elders or by a court of first instance. The High Council as the High Court of Justice (Cour Suprème) resolves constitutional questions, supervises presidential elections, and arbitrates any case in which the government is accused of malpractice. The High Council also reviews decisions of the lower courts, including the superior court of appeals at Moroni.

     

    The High Council consists of two members appointed by the president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, and one elected by the Council of each island; others are former presidents of the republic.

     

    Lower courts of the first instance are located in major towns. Religious courts on the islands apply Muslim law in matters relating to social and personal relationships.

     

The judiciary is largely independent of the executive and legislative branches.

 

2.    Political party

Comoros is a multiparty republic. The political parties in Comoros are:

  • Camp of the Autonomous Islands or CdIA
  • Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros or CRC
  • Front National pour la Justice or FNJ
  • Mouvement pour la Democratie et le Progress or MDP
  • Parti Comorien pour la Democratie et le Progress or PCDP
  • Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND

 

Economy

The Comoros is one of the world's poorest countries. Economic growth and poverty reduction are major priorities for the government. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, accounts for 50% of GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. Export income is heavily reliant on the three main crops of vanilla, cloves, and ylang-ylang; and Comoros' export earnings are easily disrupted by disasters such as fires and extreme weather. Despite agriculture's importance to the economy, the country imports roughly 70% of its food; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk of imports.

 

 

Bilateral Relationship with Indonesia

1.    Politics

Indonesia and Comoros support each other in international forum as both countries have the same point of view in some of international issues.

 

2.    Economy

The level of current economic trade between the two countries is considerably small but shows an increasing volume. Indonesia main export commodities to Comoros are consumer goods, soaps, paper, wood, and pharmaceutical products. Indonesia imports coffee, tea, mate, and spices from Comoros.

 

Indonesia-Comoros trade volume (in thousand USD)

Uraian20112012201320142015

Trend

(%)

 2011-2015

Jan-Jul

Change.

(%) 2015/

2016

20152016

TOTAL

TRADE

1.411,41.409,5374,5365,0212,3-40,1956,7314,5454,74
OIL AND GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,00,00,00
NON OIL AND GAS1.411,41.409,5374,5365,0212,3-40,1956,7314,5454,74
EXPORT1.411,41.409,5374,5319,6211,8-41,0156,2314,5459,75
OIL AND GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,00,00,00
NON OIL AND GAS 1.411,41.409,5374,5319,6211,8-41,0156,2314,5459,75
IMPORT0,00,00,045,40,50,000,50,0-100,00
OIL AND GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,00,00,00
NON OIL AND GAS0,00,00,045,40,50,000,50,0-100,00
TRADE BALANCE1.411,41.409,5374,5274,3211,2-41,9355,7314,5464,86
OIL AND GAS0,00,00,00,00,00,000,00,00,00
NON OIL AND GAS1.411,41.409,5374,5274,3211,2-41,9355,7314,5464,86
Sumber: BPS, Processed by Trade Data and Information Center, Ministry of Trade


 

3.    Social and Culture

The bilateral relations in socio-cultural spheres are focused in the sector of capacity building and education. Indonesia also play active role in providing training for Comorian in different other sectors, especially under the South-South Cooperation program. Every year, the Indonesian government also offers Dharmasiswa and Developing Countries Partnership Program (KNB) scholarship for Comoros students to participate.